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Roman Art and Architecture Final
Terms in this set (91)
What term do we assign to sculptures that are not free-standing, but are instead attached to a base (like the Ghiberti's bronze door panels)?
What made the bronze doors commission award so very important to early Renaissance artists?
The decision to beautify the city's baptistery in the face of Visconti's threat was an expression of Florentine freedom and defiance.
What is so original about Donatello's David, and what is the term for this very original pose that the figure strikes?
What is the term for the artistic practice of rendering forms so that they appear three-dimensional on an otherwise two-dimensional surface:
What are two ways of achieving this practice that is defined in #4?
Linear and Atmospheric Perspective
What are three different innovations included in Massaccio's fresco The Tribute Money?
Circular depth instead of linear form of figures surrounding Jesus
"Distance" view perspective.
The use of light and shadows (as if they were coming from the window of the chapel)
What was the most valuable of sculptural materials in the Italian Renaissance?
Gold or marble
What did Donatello's triumphant David symbolize for Florentine citizens?
Medici commissioned it to show prowess, plus it showed victory over Vicontis attack on the Florentine state
What form is included in the lower region of Masaccio's Trinity, and what does it mean?
What are two innovations included in Masaccio's Trinity image?
Perception and foreshortening
Donatello's Gattamelata sculpture is known as a mounted portrait. Such portraits were meant to recall similar portrayals of ancient
What is the gendered, social and historical significance of a woman's portrait being in profile (such as Giovanna Tornabuoni)?
As described in class, a woman in profile is more of an object and a possession, rather when she is facing you it shows her more of a person.
What makes Botticelli's Venus so 'radical' in her nudity, and what does this kind of subject matter indicate about the interests of Renaissance artists and audiences?
Very unusual for the 15th century, only Adam and Eve beforehand; Pagan
Based on our class discussion about Gothic art and architecture and what we have seen thus far, what are the aesthetic values (stylistic uniquenesses) of Gothic art and architecture?
Angular shapes, reaching for the heavens
What was the 'Great Schism' and how did it influence Italian society in the 1200s and 1300s?
While there are multiple Great Schisms, the one believed to be the one she is talking about is the great schism of the two popes. One Pope went to France and the other stayed in italy.
The book states that this really affected italian life in the 14th century. Because of that there was a huge increase of Monastic orders.
What are the characteristics of 'mendicant' orders?
Fransicans and Dominicans are the biggest of these orders, begging monks that renounced worldly goods and devoted their lives to:Spreading the word of God, Performing good deeds, Ministering to the sick and dying
What are confraternities, and how do they influence Italian society - especially in churches - in this era?
Confraternities: organizations consisting of laypersons who dedicated themselves to strict religious observance (popular 14th and 15th centuries)
What was Italy comprised of in the 14th century, in terms of territories?
What sweeps through Italy repeatedly in the late 1340s, and how does this influence religious life?
Bubonic plague, people donate more to the Church which allows the Church to hire artist for painting
What concurrent development in language is occurring in Italy at this time, who is credited with its promulgation, and how does this impact intellectual life?
Vernacular Literature - Dante Alighieri
What growing concern parallels religion, philosophically speaking, in the 1300s, and what is this growing concern called?
The first painter of this era to be recognized for putting some of these ideas and values into imagery is named
Cite three ways in which this artist expresses the dominant philosophy of the time through his Madonna and Child painting
Composition and gold background reveal the painter's reliance on Byzantine models
Gold embellishments used for the folds in the Madonna's robe but aren't just decorative. They enhance the three dimensionality of the drapery.
Constructed a deeper space for the Madonna and the surrounding figures.
In the Arena Chapel, this artist's works are executed in what medium, and what makes this medium very difficult to work in?
Medium: Fresco paintingsRequires several layers of lime plaster, have to paint while the plaster is wet for it to absorb pigment.
With the advent of a more structured society came organizations known as ______________________ for artists. How do they contribute to art business as well as the city's religious and artistic life?
Protected members from external pressures like taxation. Also, gave them a means to regulate their internal operations.
What did art commission contracts of the time include and consider as important features for an agreement?
Placement of commissions, Patronage and inclusion of patrons within art
How does Simone Martini's Annunciation altarpiece combine older Gothic components while appealing to 'aristocratic tastes'?
Created the International Gothic style;used brilliant colors, lavish costumes, intricate orientation and themes involving splendid processions
What is the nature of artistic training in Italy at this time - what is the basic process for someone to become an artist?
Laborious and lengthy training; training began between the ages of 7-15; apprenticeship, enter appropriate guilds (stoneworker, silk guild, etc), assistant and eventually an independent artist.
Art in the city-state of Siena was not always religious in nature. What building houses the Good Government frescoes, and how is this building crafted for the sake of defense of the city-state?
Housed in the Palazzo PubblicoHas a concave facade and a gigantic tower visible for miles around. The tower served as both a defensive lookout and a symbol of the city-state's power.
What are the essential messages of the Good Government frescoes, and how are those messages expressed?
The Good Government frescos carry a strong social message of the value of the stable republican government of Siena. It combines elements of secular life with references to the importance of religion in the city at the time. This is conveyed through a great amount of commerce, prosperity, and peace within Siena's streets and countryside.
For what architectural innovation does Brunelleschi become best known, and on what historical precedents does he base his creative solutions to a big problem? What else does Brunelleschi invent while creating his early masterpiece?
Linear perspective, Roman monuments????? Construct a dome (egg shape), design the Hospital for the Innocents
On what modular unit is the Pazzi Chapel designed, and for what purpose are Renaissance family chapels created?
A "central-plan" structure, emphasis on the dome. Helped to create a balanced, harmonious, and regularly portioned space. They functioned as Mausoleums. Certain wealthy families who commissioned the building of these Chapels, sponsored masses specifically for the dead.
How is the Palazzo Medici Riccardi based on ancient Roman architectural precedents? And how is the building's exterior holistically designed to be a well-crafted unit? How does the interior court reflect Bartolommeo's awareness of his current peers in architecture?
- In the Palazzo Medici Riccardi, the rusticated masonry and the cornice had precedents in Roman practice, yet in totality it looks distinctly Florentine, unlike any known Roman building. he open colonnaded court that is the center of the palazzo plan has roots in the cloisters that developed from Roman peristyles.
How does Alberti's façade of Sant' Andrea in Mantua reflect the architect's studies of ancient Roman architecture? What primary ancient Roman prototype seems to influence Alberti's design the most?
THE ROMAN TRIUMPHAL ARCH
Describe the Camera Picta's use of painting as both a decorative and illusionistic device.
Decorative: Representative of Juno, the Goddess of marriage. Her sacred animal, the peacock is predominant in the oculus. First perspective of the ceiling, "from below upward."
Illusionistic: The viewer becomes the viewed as figures look down into the room from the painted oculus. A cloud-filled sky, painted spectators looking down at you, Peacock perched and ready to swoop down into the room, etc...
What kinds of skills did Leonardo da Vinci possess
Leonardo was exposed to both theoretical training and a wide range of technical skills, including drafting, chemistry, metallurgy, metal working, plaster casting, leather working, mechanics, and wood-work, as well as the artistic skills of drawing, painting, sculpting, and modelling.
What was Leonardo's great ambition, as a painter?
To understand the human body
What is the term for the 'smoky' quality to Leonardo's tones?
What is the term for an artist's preparatory drawing that is made to the same scale as the intended, final painting?
Why is the state of the Last Supper so fragile and problematic?
It was covered with oil that Leonardo experimented with
What is the term for Renaissance artists' management of light and dark values that help create a 3-dimensional sense of form in painting (and drawing)?
How does Raphael emulate his older contemporary, Leonardo, in his compositions?
Raphael emulates Leonardo's 'modern' three-quarter pose, with head tilted slightly forward and eyes directed at viewer, and the pose of hands, with right hand gently resting on left, indicating modesty.
In The School of Athens, where does Raphael place his self-portrait, and why?
Right corner - he groups himself with other famous individuals. He is surrounded by Sodoma, Ptolemy and Zoroaster
What makes Leonardo's portrait of Mona Lisa and Raphael's portrait of Baldassare Castiglione so influential for Renaissance era portraiture?
the woman, instead of side-faced, looks towards the audience with face fully shown
What are some socio-political and economic forces that bring major changes to Western Europe during the 1600s? Cite and explain three
30ths year war between catholics and protestants, Counter-reformation, magellan's circumnavigation
What is the important place that Bramante's Tempietto is intended to mark?
the place of St. Peter's crucifixion
How did Bernini anthropomorphize the colonnade that extends from the façade of St. Peter's cathedral?
The arms of the church gathering the faithful
How is Bernini's David different from the other statues of the Biblical hero we've seen thus far
In action of event, in the round, 3 main points, face sculpted like berninis, armor of isralite king rather than log
Bernini's David and Apollo and Daphne sculptures are designed and carved in such a way as to require that they be seen " in the round"
How does Bernini's St. Theresa sculpture refer to the unique habits of cloistered women in the 17th century?
Cloister-life freer than married life
What is the term for the masterful use of lights and darks that Caravaggio (and others who emulated him) enlisted in his paintings?
What is the term for a painter who emulated Caravaggio's style?
Both Caravaggio and Velasquez did not idealize figures in their paintings. What did they do instead?
Used normal people
Baroque art is characterized by religious reactionary imagery to scientific developments of this era:
Gravity, light, heliocentrism
Indicate three unique characteristic aspects of Baroque art - particularly of Italy.
- Ornate ceilings, larger than life in general, curvature of the facade, and arches
What are two different strains of Christian denominations that influence Northern European Baroque art in the 1600s, and how are those influences visible in paintings?
reformists and counter-reformist Catholics
What do we call an image or an object that carries additional meaning beyond what it immediately is?
a skull in a still life painting) - symbol
What do we call still life paintings of the 1600s that remind viewers of the 'brevity of life'?
the central area of a church
A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church.
In Roman architecture, a freestanding arch commemorating an important event, such as a military victory or the opening of a new road.
An abbreviated way of representing a crowd by painting or carving many heads close together, usually with too few bodies for the number of heads
a style of geometric decorative inlay stonework typically of the architecture of Medieval Italy and especially of Rome and its surroundings, and derived from that of the Byzantine Empire
the material in mosaics
the portion of a basilica flanking the nave and separated from it by a row of columns or piers
the arm of a cruciform church, perpendicular to the nave; the point where the nave and this cross is called the crossing; beyond the crossing lies the sanctuary, whether apse, choir, or chevet
the upper part of the nave, choir, and transepts of a large church, containing a series of windows. It is clear of the roofs of the aisles and admits light to the central parts of the building.
the table in a Christian church at which the bread and wine are consecrated in communion services.
Mother of God
(n.) a representation or image of a sacred personage, often considered sacred itself; an image or picture; a symbol; a graphic symbol on a computer monitor display; an object of blind devotion
a ceremonial canopy of stone, metal, or fabric over an altar, throne, or doorway.
a receptacle shaped like a shrine or a cup with an arched cover, used in the Christian Church to hold the Eucharist. A canopy over an alter in a church, standing on four pillars.
a large oblong hall or building with double colonnades and a semicircular apse, used in ancient Rome as a court of law or for public assemblies.
a person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, cause, or activity
an object considered holy because it belonged to, or was touched by, a saint or other holy person
A container where religious relics are stored or displayed (especially relics of saints)
Italian Renaissance 1300- mid 1400.
excessive use of a distinctive style in art, literature, or music
relating to or denoting a style of European architecture, music, and art of the 17th and 18th centuries that followed Mannerism and is characterized by ornate detail. In architecture the period is exemplified by the palace of Versailles and by the work or Wren in England
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.
A building or designated area of a building in which services are conducted.
The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.
- painted or printed in several colors; varied coloring
the process of applying gold leaf or gold paint.
Central Church Plan
centralized with a dome
Latin church plan
- composed of a nave, usually flanked by aisles, chapels, or both a transept that serves as the arms of the cross, and an apse where the main altar is place. Some Latin cross churches also have a narthex, a vestibule that precedes the nave
a style and theory of representation based on the accurate depiction of detail; the philosophical belief that everything arises from natural properties and causes, and supernatural or spiritual explanations and excluded or discounted
a rounded vault forming the roof of a building or structure, typically with a circular base
a soft mixture of sand and cement and sometimes lime with water, for spreading on walls, ceilings, or other structures, to form a smooth hard surface when dried
a yellowish-brown alloy of copper with up to one-third tin
fine plaster used for coating wall surfaces or molding into architectural decorations
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