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Miller Test

The test for obscenity

Rape Myth

A false assumption about rape such as "When a woman says 'no', she really means 'yes'."

Liberty limiting principles

1. Harm to others 2. Harm to self 3. Offense principle 4. Immorality principle


control of what people read or write or see or hear; efforts to prohibit free expression of ideas

Ann Atwater and C.P. Ellis

Poor African-American and KKK leader became the best of friends in an agreement to help public schools.

Same-sex marriage

is harmful and no helpful for raising children.

Meaning of marriage

Procreation and the raising of children as the dominant, if not sole, purpose of marriage.


branch of philosophy that examines what is and is not real


unshakable commitment to one point
of view

Offhanded self justification

Automatic rationalization (making excuses)

Creative problem solving

Finding the facts
Watching the words (manipulation)
Comparing to other cases

Ethical Relativism

There are no objective/universal moral standards or truths

Ethical Universalism

What a society thinks about the morality or immorality of an act itself moral or immoral.
Some morals standards are broad and universal.


the ancient greek known as the father of history


the study of values and value judgments

Social Utility

moral worth of an action is determined by its outcome

Natural Law

God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law


Duty Based Ethics

Duty-based Eithics

What ought I to do?
What is my duty?

Virture-based Eithics

Who should I be?
How can I be virtuous?


the quality of doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong

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