Structural Functionalism: using science to improve every aspect of life. Sociology would solve all problems in the world. Did suicide studies within religion
Durkheim: What holds early society together?
Every person in society has same purpose
Durkheim: What holds modern/later society together?
Different jobs for different people
Society is held together by the need for each other
How does structure functionalism survive?
The need for each others talents.
Society has different parts and they must function together for society to work.
intended consequences of something
unintended consequences of something
What kind of questions do structural functionalists ask?
What function does x fill? How is x functional or dysfunctional?
Pros of structural functionalism?
everyone has place in society (macro level)
Cons of structural functionalism?
doesn't explain social chance in society
believed social world could be studied and transformed
What causes society to change?
change is driven by the rise and subseqyent fall of economic systems in society
Means of production
Marx believe of most important relationship
only important relationship is the economic one
traded freedom for choice
the proletariot relation would cause a bond between people in similar class
the study of human society, and there is the sociology of different part of society
the ability to connect the most basic intimate aspects of an individuals' life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces
a group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role; also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to socialize the groups or people within it
how individuals define themselves in relationship to groups with which they affiliate (or disassociate from).
a methodological approach that looks for the causes of developments and changes in human societies in the way in which humans collectively earn a living, thus emphasizing, through economic analysis, everything that coexists within the economic base of society
to interpret and understand the social world through experience
the study of social meaning
a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships
sociology of pure numbers
the theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important function to keep society running
the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social change and society in general (Marx)
a condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting form disjointed affiliations
is a state of dominance where the dominance is so complete that alternative options are difficult to imagine
What groups are in conflict? Racial, Gender, Economic? What are the scarce resources they are conflicting over? How is power being maintained? What are the hegemonic beliefs?
Research questions conflict theorists ask
Instead of studying books he talked to people and became a part of society (Social Interactionists)
Iron Cage of bureaucracy
no one controls the whole process because each section is so complex
Value free sociology
Sociologists should try to keep their own values from affecting their work (not objectivity)
people attach meanings to symbols and create society through those shared meanings (micro level of society)
coined the name symbolic interactionism off Weber's work
Critical of the power relationships embedded in systems of society even in the system of science (Mass culture)
as created and sustained through media and advertising, it is oppressive
How are masculinity and femininity maintained, enacted, changed in society? Mix of conflict theory and symbolic interactionists
Distrustful of any claim of objectivity-reality is a wholly subjective construct
Current society is based on an amalgamation of empty, consumerist symbols without any framework of principles (pessimistic)
How sociologists look at society, like lenses.
common language and allows critique and peer review
methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form
methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in, or can be converted to, numeric form
no pre conceived notions into a situation and a hypothesis comes out of your data collected (qualitative)
takes a part in research
sits on the side and watches
a group interview of people that have some quality or something in common
everyone has an equal chance of being surveyed or question
investigates something no one or very few have studied before (often qualitative research)
gives additional precision about a known subject (US Census, tends to be quantitative research)
tries to explain why and what is the cause of things
the ability of someone else to replicate your experiment and produce similar results
your experiment is testing what you actually intend it too
social heritage of a people
artifacts, objects, buildings
Non material culture
values, language, beliefs, norms, customs, (socio's focus)
group of people who live within same territory and share common culture
social rules that specify appropriate and inappropriate behavior
Moral issues or larger norms
so bad you aren't even suppose to think about it. extreme sanctions
any written down (codified) norm
broad ideas that most people of society share
punishments for breaking a norm and is similar to the size of norm broken
punishments that other people impose on us
punishments that we impose on ourselves
the idea that our own rights and benefits are more important than the community
rights of community are more important than an individual
evaluating things in a different culture using your own cultural values
evaluating things in a different culture using their own values
a socially shared system of speech that allows to communicate to others
our language shapes what we think the world is like
patterns that occur in every society (marriage, funeral rites, kinships)
a position in society that someone fills
the group of positions that you fill and change all the time
assigned and we can't control it
we choose and attain through our efforts
status that becomes primary in lifes and mind and the one that holds primary weight in daily interactions
set of expectations assigned to a status
our actual behavior in a role
when actions/ expectations are in compatible
expectations from 2 different statuses
language, values, norms, roles, statuses
The building blocks of culture
the process of becoming a part of your social world (life long process)
Social learning theory
socialization occurs through positive and negative reinforcement
people imitate the behavior they see in others
you learn to repeat or avoid behavior depending on whether the behavior was reinforced or punished
Cognitive development theory
socialization occurs in steps with children developmental stages
Erikson's eight states of psychosocial personality development
the stages span an entire lifetime aren't limited to childhood or adolescence
Looking glass self
we imagine what other people think of us like looking in a mirror
relative stable idea of who we really are
temporary idea about ourselves and they change from one situation to another
evaluation we make of ourselves
the belief that one can overcome obstacles and achieve goals
direct feedback from others
messages we get from observing how others interact with us
comparisons based off of reference groups or off people that we see as relevant
identity we create based on group memberships and each person's social identity is unique
Came up with the idea of impression management
we constantly work to influence how others see us
life is a stage and all people are merely players and looks at the roles that each person plays
where the public display takes place
changing customs, practicing scripts, the dirty work
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