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106 terms

Sociology Midterm

STUDY
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Emile Durkheim
Structural Functionalism: using science to improve every aspect of life. Sociology would solve all problems in the world. Did suicide studies within religion
Durkheim: What holds early society together?
Sameness
Mechanical Solidarity
Every person in society has same purpose
Durkheim: What holds modern/later society together?
Different jobs for different people
Organic Solidarity
Society is held together by the need for each other
How does structure functionalism survive?
The need for each others talents.
Structural Functionalism
Society has different parts and they must function together for society to work.
Manifest Functions
intended consequences of something
Latent Functions
unintended consequences of something
What kind of questions do structural functionalists ask?
What function does x fill? How is x functional or dysfunctional?
Pros of structural functionalism?
everyone has place in society (macro level)
Cons of structural functionalism?
doesn't explain social chance in society
Karl Marx?
believed social world could be studied and transformed
Dialetical Materialism
What causes society to change?
Dialetical Materialism
change is driven by the rise and subseqyent fall of economic systems in society
Means of production
Marx believe of most important relationship
Economic determinist
only important relationship is the economic one
False Consiousness
traded freedom for choice
Class Consiousness
the proletariot relation would cause a bond between people in similar class
Sociology
the study of human society, and there is the sociology of different part of society
Sociological Imagination
the ability to connect the most basic intimate aspects of an individuals' life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces
Social Institution
a group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role; also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to socialize the groups or people within it
Social Identity
how individuals define themselves in relationship to groups with which they affiliate (or disassociate from).
Historical Materialism
a methodological approach that looks for the causes of developments and changes in human societies in the way in which humans collectively earn a living, thus emphasizing, through economic analysis, everything that coexists within the economic base of society
Verstehen
to interpret and understand the social world through experience
Interpretive sociology
the study of social meaning
Positivist sociology
a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships
Formal Sociology
sociology of pure numbers
Functionalism
the theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important function to keep society running
Conflict Theory
the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social change and society in general (Marx)
Postmodernism
a condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting form disjointed affiliations
Hegemony
is a state of dominance where the dominance is so complete that alternative options are difficult to imagine
What groups are in conflict? Racial, Gender, Economic? What are the scarce resources they are conflicting over? How is power being maintained? What are the hegemonic beliefs?
Research questions conflict theorists ask
Max Weber
Instead of studying books he talked to people and became a part of society (Social Interactionists)
Iron Cage of bureaucracy
no one controls the whole process because each section is so complex
Value free sociology
Sociologists should try to keep their own values from affecting their work (not objectivity)
Symbolic Interactionism
people attach meanings to symbols and create society through those shared meanings (micro level of society)
Herbert Blumer
coined the name symbolic interactionism off Weber's work
Critical Theory
Critical of the power relationships embedded in systems of society even in the system of science (Mass culture)
Mass culture
as created and sustained through media and advertising, it is oppressive
Feminist Theory
How are masculinity and femininity maintained, enacted, changed in society? Mix of conflict theory and symbolic interactionists
Postmodernism
Distrustful of any claim of objectivity-reality is a wholly subjective construct
Current society is based on an amalgamation of empty, consumerist symbols without any framework of principles (pessimistic)
Theories
How sociologists look at society, like lenses.
Scientific Method
common language and allows critique and peer review
Qualitative Method
methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form
Quantitative method
methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in, or can be converted to, numeric form
Grounded Theory
no pre conceived notions into a situation and a hypothesis comes out of your data collected (qualitative)
Participant observer
takes a part in research
Non participant
sits on the side and watches
Focus groups
a group interview of people that have some quality or something in common
Random samples
everyone has an equal chance of being surveyed or question
Exploratory research
investigates something no one or very few have studied before (often qualitative research)
Descriptive research
gives additional precision about a known subject (US Census, tends to be quantitative research)
Explanatory research
tries to explain why and what is the cause of things
Reliability
the ability of someone else to replicate your experiment and produce similar results
Validity
your experiment is testing what you actually intend it too
Culture
social heritage of a people
Material Culture
artifacts, objects, buildings
Non material culture
values, language, beliefs, norms, customs, (socio's focus)
Society
group of people who live within same territory and share common culture
Norms
social rules that specify appropriate and inappropriate behavior
Folkways
Small norms
Mores
Moral issues or larger norms
Taboos
so bad you aren't even suppose to think about it. extreme sanctions
Laws
any written down (codified) norm
Values
broad ideas that most people of society share
Sanctions
punishments for breaking a norm and is similar to the size of norm broken
External sanction
punishments that other people impose on us
Internal sanction
punishments that we impose on ourselves
Individualism
the idea that our own rights and benefits are more important than the community
Communalism
rights of community are more important than an individual
Ethnocentrism
evaluating things in a different culture using your own cultural values
Cultural relativism
evaluating things in a different culture using their own values
Language
a socially shared system of speech that allows to communicate to others
Sapir-whorf
our language shapes what we think the world is like
Cultural universals
patterns that occur in every society (marriage, funeral rites, kinships)
Status
a position in society that someone fills
status set
the group of positions that you fill and change all the time
Ascribed status
assigned and we can't control it
Achieved status
we choose and attain through our efforts
Master status
status that becomes primary in lifes and mind and the one that holds primary weight in daily interactions
Roles
set of expectations assigned to a status
Role performance
our actual behavior in a role
Role strain
when actions/ expectations are in compatible
Role conflict
expectations from 2 different statuses
language, values, norms, roles, statuses
The building blocks of culture
Socialization
the process of becoming a part of your social world (life long process)
Social learning theory
socialization occurs through positive and negative reinforcement
observational learning
people imitate the behavior they see in others
conditioning
you learn to repeat or avoid behavior depending on whether the behavior was reinforced or punished
Cognitive development theory
socialization occurs in steps with children developmental stages
Erikson's eight states of psychosocial personality development
the stages span an entire lifetime aren't limited to childhood or adolescence
Looking glass self
we imagine what other people think of us like looking in a mirror
self concept
relative stable idea of who we really are
self image
temporary idea about ourselves and they change from one situation to another
self esteem
evaluation we make of ourselves
self efficacy
the belief that one can overcome obstacles and achieve goals
self knowledge
direct feedback from others
reflected appraisals
messages we get from observing how others interact with us
social comparisons
comparisons based off of reference groups or off people that we see as relevant
social identity
identity we create based on group memberships and each person's social identity is unique
Erving Goffman
Came up with the idea of impression management
impression Management
we constantly work to influence how others see us
Dramaturgical Analysis
life is a stage and all people are merely players and looks at the roles that each person plays
Front state
where the public display takes place
back stage
changing customs, practicing scripts, the dirty work