Structural Functionalism: using science to improve every aspect of life. Sociology would solve all problems in the world. Did suicide studies within religion
Durkheim: What holds early society together?
Every person in society has same purpose
Durkheim: What holds modern/later society together?
Different jobs for different people
Society is held together by the need for each other
How does structure functionalism survive?
The need for each others talents.
Society has different parts and they must function together for society to work.
intended consequences of something
unintended consequences of something
What kind of questions do structural functionalists ask?
What function does x fill? How is x functional or dysfunctional?
Pros of structural functionalism?
everyone has place in society (macro level)
Cons of structural functionalism?
doesn't explain social chance in society
believed social world could be studied and transformed
What causes society to change?
change is driven by the rise and subseqyent fall of economic systems in society
Means of production
Marx believe of most important relationship
only important relationship is the economic one
traded freedom for choice
the proletariot relation would cause a bond between people in similar class
the study of human society, and there is the sociology of different part of society
the ability to connect the most basic intimate aspects of an individuals' life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces
a group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role; also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to socialize the groups or people within it
how individuals define themselves in relationship to groups with which they affiliate (or disassociate from).
a methodological approach that looks for the causes of developments and changes in human societies in the way in which humans collectively earn a living, thus emphasizing, through economic analysis, everything that coexists within the economic base of society
to interpret and understand the social world through experience
the study of social meaning
a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships
sociology of pure numbers
the theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important function to keep society running
the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social change and society in general (Marx)
a condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting form disjointed affiliations
is a state of dominance where the dominance is so complete that alternative options are difficult to imagine
What groups are in conflict? Racial, Gender, Economic? What are the scarce resources they are conflicting over? How is power being maintained? What are the hegemonic beliefs?
Research questions conflict theorists ask
Instead of studying books he talked to people and became a part of society (Social Interactionists)
Iron Cage of bureaucracy
no one controls the whole process because each section is so complex
Value free sociology
Sociologists should try to keep their own values from affecting their work (not objectivity)
people attach meanings to symbols and create society through those shared meanings (micro level of society)
coined the name symbolic interactionism off Weber's work
Critical of the power relationships embedded in systems of society even in the system of science (Mass culture)
as created and sustained through media and advertising, it is oppressive
How are masculinity and femininity maintained, enacted, changed in society? Mix of conflict theory and symbolic interactionists
Distrustful of any claim of objectivity-reality is a wholly subjective construct Current society is based on an amalgamation of empty, consumerist symbols without any framework of principles (pessimistic)
How sociologists look at society, like lenses.
common language and allows critique and peer review
methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form
methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in, or can be converted to, numeric form
no pre conceived notions into a situation and a hypothesis comes out of your data collected (qualitative)
takes a part in research
sits on the side and watches
a group interview of people that have some quality or something in common
everyone has an equal chance of being surveyed or question
investigates something no one or very few have studied before (often qualitative research)
gives additional precision about a known subject (US Census, tends to be quantitative research)
tries to explain why and what is the cause of things
the ability of someone else to replicate your experiment and produce similar results
your experiment is testing what you actually intend it too