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chapter 4: Carbohydrates

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Simple Carbohydrates (examples and sources)
contain one or two molecules; Commonly called sugar; a monosaccharide or disaccharide such as glucose; 7 examples: glucose, fructose galactose, ribose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose
Complex Carbohydrates (examples and sources)
a carb with three or more monosaccharides; A nutrient compound consisting of long chains of glucose molecules such as starch, glycogen, and fiber; examples: raffinose, stachyose, starch, glycogen, fiber
Monosaccharides
Glucose, fructose, galactose, and ribose; The simplest of carbohydrates. Consists of one sugar molecule, the most common form of which is glucose;
Disaccharides
lactose, maltose, and sucrose; A carbohydrate compound consisting of two monosaccharide molecules joined together
Oligosaccharides
complex carbohydrates that contain 3 to 10 monosaccharides
polysaccharides
A complex carbohydrate consisting of long chains of glucose (hundreds to thousands)
starch
A polysaccharide stored in plants; the storage form of glucose in plants. Two forms: amylose (straight chain) and amylopectin (highly branched)
glycogen
A polysaccharide stored in animals; the storage form of glucose in animals;
soluble fibers
Fibers that dissolve in water; can be fermented;
insoluble fiber
Fibers that do not dissolve in water; cannot be fermented by bacteria in the colon;
the mouth, the small intestine (majority),
Where carbohydrate digestion occurs
pancreatic amylase
Enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the SI that digests any remaining starch into maltose
In the mouth(?)
where in the GIT carbs are broken down
glucose or excess carbs
transported in the bloodstream to the cells, where it is either used for energy, stored in the liver or muscle as glycogen, or converted to fat and stored into adipose tissue;
fiber (health benefits)
Reduces the risk of colon cancer; prevents hemorrhoids, constipation, and other intestinal problems; reduces the risk of diverticulosis; may enhance weight loss; may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Dietary recommendations for light exercise
12.5% carbohydrates
reactive hypoglycemia
occurs when the pancreas secretes too much insulin after a high carbohydrate meal; symptoms: shakiness, anxiety, sweating, irritability, headache, weakness, and rapid or irregular heartbeat
fasting hypoglycemia
occurs when the body continues to produce too much insulin, even when someone has not eaten; symptoms occur over 4 hours after a meal.
lactose intolerance
A disorder in which the body does not produce sufficient lactase enzyme and therefore cannot digest foods that contain lactose, such as cow's milk.
Insulin
Hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased blood levels of glucose; facilitates uptake of glucose by body cells
glucagon
Hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood levels of glucose; causes breakdown of liver stores of glycogen into glucose
Dietary recommendations for moderate exercise
45% carbohydrate
Dietary recommendations for intense exercise
67% carbohydrate
RDA for carbohydrates - Adults 19+
130 g carbohydrate/day
AI for fiber - women
25 g /day
AI for fiber - men
38 g/ day
AI for fiber per 1,000 kcall /day
14 grams
Diabetes
A chronic disease in which the body can no longer regulate glucose
type 1 diabetes
10% of diabetics; A disorder in which the body cannot produce enough insulin; cause unknown; symptoms: lethargic, and trouble breathing, frequent urination; treatment: administration of insulin by injection several times daily
type 2 diabetes
A progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin; Causes: genetics, obesity, physical inactivity; Treatment: weight loss, healthful eating patterns, and regular exercise, oral medications; daily injections
hypoglycemia
A condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels