Simple Carbohydrates (examples and sources)
contain one or two molecules; Commonly called sugar; a monosaccharide or disaccharide such as glucose; 7 examples: glucose, fructose galactose, ribose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose
Complex Carbohydrates (examples and sources)
a carb with three or more monosaccharides; A nutrient compound consisting of long chains of glucose molecules such as starch, glycogen, and fiber; examples: raffinose, stachyose, starch, glycogen, fiber
Glucose, fructose, galactose, and ribose; The simplest of carbohydrates. Consists of one sugar molecule, the most common form of which is glucose;
lactose, maltose, and sucrose; A carbohydrate compound consisting of two monosaccharide molecules joined together
A polysaccharide stored in plants; the storage form of glucose in plants. Two forms: amylose (straight chain) and amylopectin (highly branched)
Enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the SI that digests any remaining starch into maltose
glucose or excess carbs
transported in the bloodstream to the cells, where it is either used for energy, stored in the liver or muscle as glycogen, or converted to fat and stored into adipose tissue;
fiber (health benefits)
Reduces the risk of colon cancer; prevents hemorrhoids, constipation, and other intestinal problems; reduces the risk of diverticulosis; may enhance weight loss; may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.
occurs when the pancreas secretes too much insulin after a high carbohydrate meal; symptoms: shakiness, anxiety, sweating, irritability, headache, weakness, and rapid or irregular heartbeat
occurs when the body continues to produce too much insulin, even when someone has not eaten; symptoms occur over 4 hours after a meal.
A disorder in which the body does not produce sufficient lactase enzyme and therefore cannot digest foods that contain lactose, such as cow's milk.
Hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased blood levels of glucose; facilitates uptake of glucose by body cells
Hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood levels of glucose; causes breakdown of liver stores of glycogen into glucose
type 1 diabetes
10% of diabetics; A disorder in which the body cannot produce enough insulin; cause unknown; symptoms: lethargic, and trouble breathing, frequent urination; treatment: administration of insulin by injection several times daily
type 2 diabetes
A progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin; Causes: genetics, obesity, physical inactivity; Treatment: weight loss, healthful eating patterns, and regular exercise, oral medications; daily injections