Homologous = transfusion of blood from another perso
In general. there are two indications for using whole blood: (1) acute maassive blood loss, and (2) active bleeding in a patient who has lost over 25% of blood volume. 2-4mon
The most common complications are fever, allergic reactions. and non-A and non-B hepatitis. The less common category of complications includes: circulatory overload. dilutional thrombocytopenia, and delayed hemolytic reaction.
Disadvantages: great room for error, post-transfusion hepatitis, and transmission of disease (HIV)
Advantages: expands sources of blood, and allows for quicker access to blood if patient has lost too much on their own, useful during surgery as well
Homologous blood transfusions are detectable using fluorescense-activating cell sorting (FACS) as of 2004 (first used at 2004 Olympic Summer Games in Athens)
Autologous blood transfusions are undetectable but a biopassport can reveal a suspiciously high hematocrit.
Increases stroke, heart attack, 65% red blood cells (molasis)
Advantage auto: no difference in cells, just percentage of red blood cells.
Auto: takes a month to work. Recovery time
Endocannabinoids may play an important role in pain modulation (other effects of cannabinoids are less understood)
Potential pharmacological uses of endocannabinoid system: hypnotics, analgesics, anti-emetics, antiasthmatics, anti-hypertensives, immunomodulatory drugs, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective agents, antiepileptics, glaucoma, spasticity and other "movement disorders", eating disorders, alcohol withdrawal, hepatic fibrosis, bone growth, and atherosclerosis.
1.Anti-inflammatory - widely administered in sports for musculoskeletal injuries, chronic joint pain due to inflammation
2.Immune suppression - glucocorticoids are potent immune suppressors (target and reduce activity of lymphocytes [a type of white blood cell]) - administered to treat autoimmune disorders (e.g., lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, allergies), organ transplants, etc.
3.Physiological replacement - exogenous glucocorticoids are administered if the body is not producing these compounds naturally - e.g., Addison's disease
Long term effect
-Hyperglycemia (over a long period this can cause insulin resistance: Type II diabetes)
-Insomnia (oral glucocorticoids come with specific instructions for patients - do not take in the evening)
-Facial swelling (with fat deposition in the face = "moon face")
-Adrenal gland suppression (exogenous cortisone causes negative feedback on endogenous glucocorticoid production)
-Hypertension (via ↑vasoconstriction, ↑cardiac output)
-Obesity (↑ % body fat, ↑lipogenesis, ↑visceral / subcutaneous fat) - glucocorticoids stimulate appetite
Short-term glucocorticoid use moderately increases vigor and reduces feelings of fatigue (feel "jacked") - potential for abuse in endurance athletes
Increases time to exhaustion but decreases VO2max
So at submaximal levels of exercise, may be ergogenic?
Long term: increases glucose concentrations but it comes from skeletal muscle. Leads to diabetes, decrease muscle mass, increase body fat because it gives you this "jacked feeling", osteoporosis
WADA allows to treat things outside competition but not during
Adenosine receptors are located in the brain, heart, smooth muscle, adipocytes, and skeletal muscle.
Affects brain functions such as sleep, cognition, learning, and memory, and modifies brain dysfunctions and diseases: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Epilepsy, Pain/Migraine, Depression, Schizophrenia.
Ephedrines ↑HR, ↑ blood pressure during exercise, ↓ recovery time However, performance measures do not change, i.e., strength, endurance, anaerobic capacity, reaction time, etc.
Beta adrenergic: opening bronchial passageways, or nasal congestion