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70 terms

Human Biology Exam #2

What do glands do?
Secrete hormones directly into the blood stream
Specific effects on specific organs
Delay between release of hormones and it's arrival at target cells.
What is hormonal control adequate for??
Digestion, Salt and Water Balance, Metabolism, Growth
4 Characteristics of Hormones
Steroids, proteins or amines (amino acid derivatives)
Active in small amounts
Most under negative feedback control
Rapidly degraded in the liver (enzymes in blood break down amines)
What are male sex hormones also known as?
Where are male sex hormones produced?
What is the principal Androgen?
What is the main function of Testosterone?
Sperm making
Name a few secondary sex characteristics of the male hormones
Growth of the larynx
Deepening of the voice
Growth of the beard & public hair
Development of larger & stronger muscles
Stimulation of sweat glands to produce fatty acids
may cause sebaceous glands in the skin to become overactive... acne
What are female sex hormones also known as?
Where is the female hormone produced?
What does Estrogen Stimulate??
Breast development, external genitalia
Estrogen determines?
The distribution of body fat
How is the menstrual cycle produced?
Estrogens, progesterone, FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), & LH (luteinizing hormone) all interact to produce the menstrual cycle
What does the menstrual cycle do?
egg maturation and release
Where is the adrenal cortex
Outer region of the adrenal gland (a double gland)
What does the Adrenal Cortex do?
Secretes 2 major groups of adrenal steroids: glucocorticords and mineralocorticoids

It also secrets male sex hormones
What do glucocorticolids do?
helps maintain the glucose level in the blood
suppress inflammatory responses to tissues injury or infection
How do glucocorticolids maintain glucose levels in the blood?
Promotes the conversion of proteins & fats to glucose
Explain what cortisol does
suppresses inflammatory responses to tissue injury and infection
the drug is used in anti inflammatory agents in treatment of arthritis, asthma and other chronic inflammatory disorders
What do mineralocorticoids do?
Promote Na+ reabsorption (by the Kidney)
helps control the body's salt and water balance
stimulates the cells in the kidney to reabsorb Na+ and H20
What does an adrenal tumor in women cause?
facial hair & masculine characteristics
Epinephrine is the same as
What does the Adrenal Medulla do?
secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
What is the primary function of the Adrenal Medulla?
create the conditions for a "fight or flight" response
How does the body prepare for a "fight of flight" response
stimulate the heart to beat faster
raise blood pressure
increase blood sugar concentrations
dilate respiratory passages for more effective breathing
What do Epinephrine and norepinephrine work in concert with?
the sympathetic nervous system
What does the Thyroid gland do?
Secretes thyroid hormone and calcitonin
What is the thyroid hormone?
an amino acid with 3 or 4 iodines
What is the function of the Thyroid Hormone?
increase metabolic activity of tissues throughout the body
(specifically, it stimulates oxidation in the mitochondria of various target cells; this increases energy availability & metabolic rate)
What is hyperthyroidism
Overproduction of Thyroid Hormone (TH)
Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
higher than normal body temperature
profuse perspiration
High Blood Pressure
loss of weight
muscular weakness
How do you control hyperthyroidism
Anti-thyroid drugs
surgical removal or partial destruction of part of the thyroid gland with radioactive iodine
What is Hypothyroidism
An underproduction of TH (Thyroid Hormone)
How is hypothyroidism caused?
malfunction in the thyroid gland and insufficient iodine in the diet
How is Hypothyroidism treated?
Administration of the Thyroid Hormone
Or with iodine
What is calcitonin?
Produced by the thyroid gland
What does calcitonin do?
inhibit the release of Ca++ ions from bone (or promote Ca++ deposition in to the bones)
Lowers the calcium level in the blood
Where is the pituitary gland?
Lies below the hypothalamus
(also a double gland)
What is the posterior pituitary (lobe) a storage are for?
oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
What is the function of oxytocin
causes the contraction of uterine muscles
what is the function of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)?
stimulates collecting ducts of the kidney to absorb more water (so it will not be excreted as urine)
Where are Oxytocin and ADH Produced and Secreted from?
the Hypothalamus
What does the anterior Pituitary secrete
Prolactin, growth hormones
What is the function of prolactin?
Stimulates milk production by female mammary glands
What are the functions of the growth hormones
plays a critical role in promoting normal growth
How does growth hormones specifically promote normal growth?
promotes protein synthesis and the use of body fat for energy metabolism
Growth Hormone deficiency in children causes?
Pituitary dwarf
Growth Hormone oversupply in adults causes?
Growth Hormone oversupply in children causes?
Pituitary giant
What does TSH stand for?
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
What does TSH do?
stimulates the thyroid gland to produce the thyroid hormone
What does ACTH stand for?
Adrenal Cortex Thyroid Hormone
What does ACTH do?
Produces cortical hormones
What does FSH stand for?
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
What does LH Stand for
Lutinizing Hormone
What do LH and FSH do
Gonads produce sex hormones... especially in women
The Pituitary glad is also called
the "Master Gland"
What does the Pancreas do?
Secretes the pancreatic hormones
Pancreatic hormones produce?
cells involved with production and release of digestive enzymes. Produce Islet Cells
Islet cells produce 2 hormones
insulin and glucagon
What does insulin do?
lowers blood sugar
How is insulin activated?
a rise in blood sugar or amino acid concentration in the blood
How does insulin lower blood sugar
stimulates uptake of glucose by muscle and fat cells
stimulates conversion of glucose to glycogen in lover and muscle cells
How does Diabetes Mellitus develop
results from a deficiency of insulin
the liver and muscles don't convert enough glucose into glycogen and the liver produces to much new glucose
has effects opposite those of insulin
causes an increase in blood sugar by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver & by stimulating the breakdown of fats and proteins
Where is the Parathyroid hormone
Para- means next to or alongside. So it is Next to the Thyroid Gland
What does the Parathyroid hormone do?
Raises Ca++ in the blood
What does PTH stand for?
ParaThyroid Hormone
How dose the PTH raise blood levels of Ca++
Stimulates the Ca++ reabsorption in the Kidneys
Induces certain bone cells to release Ca+ to the blood (98% of Ca is found in the Human Bone)