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OTS 6th Grade science Populations & Communities Test
What is an organism?
a living thing
What does an organism need and why?
-food; -water; -shelter to live, grow, reproduce
What is a habitat?
an environment that provides the things organizisms need.
What is a biotic factor? Example
A living part of a habit. ex. trees, plants. bacteria, fungi
What is an abiotic factor? Example
a nonliving part of an organizims's habitit. ex...water, sunslight, oxygen
What are the levels of organization?
What is a population?
All members of one species in a particular area.
What is a species?
A group of orgnisms that are physically similar and can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also make and reproduce.
What is a community?
All different populations that live together in an area.
What is an ecosystem?
The community of organisms that live in a particular area, along with their nonliving surroundings.
What is ecology?
The study of how living things interact with each other and their environment.
What is an ecologist?
A person that studies ecology.
What is direct observation? Example
What is indirect observation? Example
What is sampling? What is the key work associated with sampling?
What is an example of mark and recapture?
Compare and contrast birth rates and death rates:
What is immigration?
Moving into a population.
What is emigration?
Leaving a population.
Why is population density important?
What is a limiting factor? Example
o Think about the Elbow room Lab
What is a carrying capacity? (K)
the largest population that an area can support.
What is happening to the deer population?
It is growing rapidly.
What are the 2 main limiting factors associated with deer?
food and space...
What are some of the things that can happen to deer because of the limiting factor?
they can die, eat from crops, and/or live closer to humans.
What is an example of direct action concerning deer?
People are hunting.
Why is direct action a problem?
Too many deer can get killed.
What is an indirect action associated with deer?
What are the problems with indirect action?
Animals hunt other animals.
What happens if humans do nothing with the deer population?
Deer will die of starvation or get diseases.
What did the OH DEER game simulate?
The deer population will decrease and then die out.
What do animals need in order to survive?
water, shelter and food
Is nature ever in balance or does it fluctuate? Explain
No, it's not not balanced.
What is natural selection?
A process by which characteristics that make an individual better suited to its environment become more commom in a species.
Who came up with the thought of natural selection (scientist)?
What is an adaptation?
A behavior or physical characterists that allows an organism to live successfully in its environment.
Relate adaptation and natural selection:
What is a niche?
The role of an organism in it's habitate.
What is competition?
The struggle between organisms to survive as they attempt to use the same limited resources.
What is predation?
An interaction in which one organ kills another for food.
What is a predator? Example
The organism that does the killing in a predation interaction. Ex. tiger shark
What is prey? Example
An organism that is killed and eaten by another organism. Ex. Albatross
Relate predation to the OH DEER game:
If there is a lot of predation population it goes down.
What are some adaptations of predators and prey?
Adaptation - cheetahs can run fast; Prey - smell spray of skunk
List some examples of defense strategies:
- false coloring; - camaufloge; - mimicry
What is symbiosis?
A close relationship between two species that benefit at least one of the species.
Give an example of a mutualism: Explain
Give an example of commensalism: Explain
Give an example of parasitism: Explain
What is a parasite?
.The organism that benefits by living on or in a host in a parasitism interaction.
What is a host?
The organism that a parasite lives in or on in a parssitism interaction.
What happened to Yellowstone in 1988?
A huge fire
Can a forest grow back after a fire?
Yes, forests grow back
What is succession?
A series of predicable changes in the community that happen over a period of time.
What is primary succession?
The series of changes that occure in an area where no soil or organisms exist.
What is secondary succession?
The series of changes that occur in an area where the ecosystem has been disturbed, but where soil and organisms still exist.
What is a producer?
An organism that can produce its own food.
What does a producer use to make food and energy?
Give an example of a producer:
What is a consumer?
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms.
What are the 4 types of consumers? Give examples
-herbivors; -omnivores; - carnivores; -scawengers
What is a decomposer?
An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms.
Why are decomposers important?
What is a food chain?
A series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy.
What is a food web?
The pattern of overlapping food chains in an ecosystem.
How are food chains and web related?
Both say relationship with food with animals
What is an example of a food chain?
What is an example of a food web?
How does an organism get its energy?
by eating other organisms
What is an energy pyramid?
A diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web.
How much energy is transferred from one level to another?
10% of energy is transerfered to other levels
True or False? Few producers can support many high-order consumers.
What are the steps of the water cycle?
-precipitation...evaporation...transpiratation..condensation...then over again
What are the major steps of the carbon cycle?
producers, consumers, decomposer
What are the major steps of the oxygen cycle?
What is the important organism in both of the above cycles?
How do humans impact the carbon and oxygen cycle?
What are the steps of nitrogen cycle?
Nitrogen moves from the air to soil to living things and back into the air.
Why does nitrogen need to be fixed?
Because most organisms can't use nitrogen gas, so nitrogen needs to be fixed.
Why is nitrogen important?
Because air is made up of 78% Nitrogen and nitrogen is necessary in the building blocks of matter that make up living organisms.
Draw different levels of ecological organization.
Organism to Population to Community to Ecosystem