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Terms in this set (56)
5 - 15 degrees
> 50 degrees
Treatment for mild scoliosis
Treatment for moderate scoliosis
Treatment for mild + bracing with a spinal orthotic
Treatment for severe scoliosis
Surgery if there is respiratory compromise or if the curve progresses quickly
When is respiratory function compromised?
If the thoracic curve is > 50 degrees
When is cardiovascular function compromised?
If the thoracic curve > 75 degrees
What is the cobb method?
1. Draw horizontal lines from the vertebral bodies of the extreme ends of the curve
2. Draw perpendicular lines from these horizontal lines and measure the acute (cobb) angle
What is the most common cause of an anatomical leg length discrepancy?
When should a heel lift be considered?
When the femoral head difference is > 5 mm
Final heel lift height
Between 1/2 and 3/4 of the measured leg length discrepancy
*If there was a recent sudden cause of the discrepancy (hip fracture or hip prosthesis) then lift the full amount lost
Heel lift for a fragile patient
Begin with a 1/16 (1.5 mm) heel lift and increase 1/16 every two weeks
Heel lift for a flexible patient
Begin with 1/8 (3.2mm) heel lift and increase 1/8 every two weeks
What is the max amount for a heel lift that may be applied to the inside of the shoe?
*If > 1/4 is needed then this must be applied to the outside of the shoe
What is the maximum heel lift possible?
*If more is needed an ipsilateral anterior sole life extending from the heel to toe should be used in order to keep the pelvis from rotating to the opposite side
What motion occurs about the superior transverse axis of the sacrum?
Respiratory Motion and Inherent (Craniosacral) Motion
What motion occurs about the middle transverse axis of the sacrum?
What motion occurs about the inverse transverse axis of the sacrum?
Motion that occurs during ambulation
Occurs about a left or right oblique axis
Most common shoulder dislocation
Anteriorly and inferiorly
Upper arm paralysis caused by injury to C5 and C6 nerve roots usually during childbirth
Injury to C8 and T1
Innervation of the thenar eminence
Median nerve EXCEPT adductor pollicis brevis (ulnar nerve)
Innervation of the hypothenar eminence
Innervation of the lumbricals
1st and 2nd lumbricals - median nerve
3rd and 4th lumbricals - ulnar nerve
Normal Carrying angle in Men
Normal Carrying angle in Women
Carrying angle > 15 degrees
(abduction of the ulna)
Carrying angle < 3 degrees
(adduction of the ulna)
Position of radial head when forearm is pronated
Radial head will glide Posteriorly
Position of radial head when forearm is supinated
Radial head will glide Anteriorly
Swan Neck Deformity
Flexion contracture of the MCP and DIP
Extension contracture of the PIP
Contracture of intrinsic muscles of the hand, associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Extension contracture of the MCP and DIP
Flexion contracture of the PIP
Rupture of the hood of the extensor tendon at the PIP, associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Extension of the MCP
Flexion of the PIP and DIP
Median and ulnar nerve injury
Similar to claw hand + washing of the thenar eminence and thumb is adducted
Median nerve damage
Contracture of the last two digits with atrophy of the hypothenar eminence
Ulnar nerve damage
Flexion contracture of the MCP and PIP usually seen with contracture of the last two digits
Due to contracture of the palmar fascia
Drop Wrist Deformity
Radial nerve damage
Paralysis of the extensor muscles
What is the normal angle between the neck and the shaft of the femur?
Angle of head of femur < 120
Angle of head of femur > 135
What is the Q (Quadriceps) angle?
Intersection of a line from the ASIS thru the middle of the patella and a line from the tibial tubercle thru the middle of the patella
What is a normal Q angle?
What is the name of an increased Q angle?
*Patient will appear more knocked-knee
What is the name of a decreased Q angle?
*Patient will appear more bowlegged
Posterior Fibular Head Dysfunction
Proximal fibular head resists anterior glide
Distal fibula may be anterior and resists posterior springing
Talus INTERNALLY rotated causing foot to invert and plantarflex
Anterior Fibular Head Dysfunction
Proximal fibular head resists posterior spring
Distal fibula may be posterior
Talus EXTERNALLY rotated causing foot to evert and dorsiflex
Pronation of ankle
Supination of ankle
First degree sprain
No tear resulting in good tensile strength and no laxity
Second degree sprain
Partial tear resulting in a decreased tensile strength with mild to moderate laxity
Third degree sprain
Complete tear resulting in no tensile strength with severe laxity
Type 1 supination sprain
Involves the anterior talofibular ligament
Type 2 supination sprain
Involves the anterior talofibular ligament and the calcaneofibular ligament
Type 3 supination sprain
Involves anterior talofibular ligament, calcaneofibular ligament, and posterior talofibular ligament
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