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final exam science
Terms in this set (57)
Cystic Fibrosis How is it caused? (What gene is mutated and what happens with the protein to cause the disease?)
Caused by a single mutation.
Allele of the CFTR gene
•The protein is non functional and has a different shape.
How are genes inherited
From the parents
o What are genes? How are they passed on to offspring?
Genes provide instructions for making proteins. Genes are passed through their chromosomes.
o What does it mean to be a diploid organism?
You have two copies of every chromosome.
o What are homologous chromosomes?
§ How are homologous chromosomes split up to make gametes?
Homologous chromosomes are a pair of chromosomes containing the same genes.
o Genotype vs. phenotype
§ How does genotype contribute to phenotype?
Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual.
phenotype is the physical features
genotype makes the instructions for the phenotypes.
o How does the combination of parental alleles contribute to the genotype and phenotype of offspring?
The combination of the parental alleles join during fertilization and determine the genotype and phenotype.
o What are gametes? What does haploid mean?
Gametes are haploid reproductive cells that carry one copy of each chromosomes.
separate unique chromosomes from each parent to pair and determine the genes.
o Process of making a person: gamete -> fertilization -> zygote (which is haploid vs diploid?)
haploid is one chromosome each parent and when they pair it becomes diploid
What are the two stages of meiosis
Meiosis I and Meiosis II
o What is the process of meiosis? Replicate DNA -> meiosis I -> meiosis II
Meisosi I - Separates the homologous chromosomes.
Each daughter cell is haploid
each chromosome still has two sister chromoatids.
Meiosis II - Separates sister chromotids
Four haploid daughter cells
Develop into sperm and egg.
o What is the result of meiosis? How is this different from mitosis?
The result is their are 4 haploid daughter cell nuclei.
Mitosis create two daughter cells with paired chromosomes.
o What are the processes of meiosis that contribute to genetic diversity (unique combos of alleles in every person)
•Due to recombination and independent assortment and random fertilization
•Meiosis is the reason that not every offspring has CF, even if the parents are carriers
when maternal and paternal chromosomes pair and physically exchange DNA segments
alleles of different genes are distributed independently of one another
-With 23 chromosome pairs, there are more than 8 million combinations of chromosomes (and alleles) possible
dominant or recessive CF? huntingtons
CF is recessive and Huntington is recessive.
· What determines biological sex? Who determines the sex of the child?
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes and the last pair determine the sex of the child
· What is a X-linked trait? Who is more susceptible to inheriting X-linked diseases?
X linked traits are found in the X chromosome.
Males because they only have one X chromosome.
· How does y chromosome analysis track ancestry? (What is special about the y chromosome that enables you to track it through generations?)
Y chromosome does not go through recombination. Males get the same Y chromosome as their fathers.
· What is incomplete dominance?
incomplete is a form of inheritance in which heterozygous have a phenotype that is intermediate between homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive. Blending traits.
Co-dominance? What blood types are co dominant
Both maternal and paternal alleles contribute equally and separate to the phenotype.
A and B are codominate O is ressesive to A and B so they can recive blood from O.
· What is a polygenic trait?
One trait that is determined by the interaction between alleles of more than one gene. It has continuous variation because it is determined
· What is a multifactorial trait?
o How does environment affect phenotype?
Interactions between genes and environment contribute to a phenotype such as diet nutrition and overall health.
· What happens when there are errors in meiosis? (nondisjunction)
nondisjunction is the failure of chromosomes to separate. This can cause genetic disorders resulting from having a chromosome number that differs from the usual 46.
· What is the difference between staph and MRSA (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus)?
MRSA is an infectious bacterium that develop resistance to antibiotic drugs and effects people with weakened immune system.
Staph some strains are harmless and others can cause disease some strains are drug resistant.(pimples) Can be harmless until crossing the skin barriers with cuts and scrapes.
· How can you be exposed/infected with staph? What makes you more vulnerable to staph infections?
Contact sports. skin contact. open cuts.
· How do antibiotics work? What do they target? Do they target our cells too?
Antibiotics kill bacteria or slow their growth. they target cell walls and human cells dont have cell walls.
· How do bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance?
They acquire random mutations when DNA replicates during asexual reproduction.
o How do they reproduce?
Asexually through binary fission: One parental cell into two daughter cells.
o What other types of resistance to bacteria have against antibiotics? (b-lactam resistance)
Through mutation and gene transfer. Some bacteria produce enzymes that chew up antibiotics.
o What is a population?
A population is a group of
organisms of the same species
living together in the same
o What is the definition of evolution? How do populations evolve? (via natural selection)
Populations evolve over time with the environment favoring some alleles over others. Allele frequency changes over time are called evolution.
o What is fitness? What influences fitness?
Fitness is organisms ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment. Environment influence fitness.
o What is natural selection and how does it affect the evolution (change in allele frequency) of a population?
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals within a population in response to environmental pressure. So the ones who survive in natural selection will have their alleles passed in to the next generation.
Predominant phenotype shifts in a particular direction.
The environment selects for phenotype toward one end of the spectrum.
antibiotic containing environments favor resistant strains of bacteria.
phenotype of population is at both extremes of range.
The environment selects for phenotype at both ends of the spectrum.
Birds with small and large beaks.
phenotype near middle of range
The environment selects for a very narrow range of phenotype.
How do we curb antibiotic resistance?
· Why are antibiotics given to livestock?
Because when we eat food we also get antibiotics.
total collection of alleles in a population
· How does the gene pool change in a population undergoing evolution? (allele frequency)
Allele frequency change over time.
§ Effects of interbreeding vs inbreeding
Interbreeding between populations increase allelic diversity in those populations and inbreeding decreases genetic diversity.
· What effect does genetic drift have on the genetic diversity of a population?
cause a evolution. Bottleneck means their are few individuals left in the population.
o What is a fossil?
Preserved remains show changes over time
o Why was Tiktalikk such an important fossil?
because it was a fossil found in the transition between fish and land dwelling animals,
o What is the significance of descent with modification?
All living things are related
different species emerged over time due to natural selection.
Homologous structures (anatomy)
those that are similar because they are inherited from the same ancestor,
o Vestigial structures
inherited from an ancestor and no longer serves as a clear function in the organism that posses it. (A snake embryo has limb buds.)
· Why did human populations evolve varying skin tones?
Because of how much melanin they need to block uv radiations
o How can we track human lineage with mtDNA?
DNA in mitochonria is inherited solely from mothers.
o What is meant by the Mitochondrial Eve?
Can track human ancestory and build evolutionary trees.
· What is the 'Out of Africa' hypothesis?
o Where did all Homo sapiens originate?
humans originated in Africa. A group migrated to other continents.
§ What species on Earth today is our closest relative?
§ What characteristics emerged that separate humans from other species?
Waling up right, bipedal, big brain, fire, stone tools
What is the difference between climate and weather?
Climate is the overall weathr pattern while weather is the local environment conditions,
What is the difference between global warming and climate change?
Global warming refers to the rise in global temperatures due to mainly increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Climate change refers to the inrease of changes over time of the climare.
How are ecosystems affected by climate change and global warming? Signs?
Start to move northward.
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