The 5 Assumptions of an Ideal Gas
1) Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles that are far apart relative to their size
2) Collisions between gas particles and between particles and container walls are elastic energy
3) Particles are in continuous, rapid, random motion.
4) There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between gas particles
5) The average kinetic energy of gas particles depends on the temperature of the gas
The 3 Conditions for the Rate of Diffusion
- Diameter of gas particle
- Any attractive forces
He found that for pressure of gases "the total is the sum of the parts" (which is only true if there is no chemical reaction between the gases).
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
- Each gas in a mixture creates pressure as if the other gases were not present.
- The total pressure is the sum of the pressures created by the gases in the mixture.
force that pulls adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, decreasing the surface area to the smallest possible size
the curve in the upper surface of a standing body of liquid, produced in response to the surface of the container or another object
the process during which particles escape from the surface of a non-boiling liquid and become gases
the conversion of a liquid to a vapor--the change of a liquid to bubbles of vapor that appear throughout the liquid
solids with particles arranged in an orderly, geometric, repeating pattern. Such is the case for most pure minerals.
solids with no regular, natural shape. They can flow, but do so very, very slowly (glass and plastics for example).
the smallest arrangement of connected points that can be repeated in 3 directions to form the lattice
dynamic condition where two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system
(It is achieved when the rates of the forward and reverse reactions become equal.)
Molar Enthalpy of Vaporization
the amount of heat energy required to vaporize a mole of liquid at constant pressure
Molar Enthalpy of Fusion
the amount of heat energy required to melt a mole of solid at its melting point
(On the phase diagram) the T and P conditions where the solid, liquid, and gas exist in equilibrium
(On the phase diagram) this point indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure
the temperature above which the substance cannot exist as a liquid, irrespective of pressure