Hardware & Software
Terms in this set (42)
When were the first digitial computing devices were invented?
When were the first commercial computers available?
When did the internet come into wide use?
When was the first patent filed for a digital computer? What was the name of the computer?
June 26, 1947
What, when and where was the first digital computer in Canada?
The FERUT at the University of Toronto in 1952. It was a copy of the Mark 1
What were the first digital computing machines used in business and government?
A large amount of code running in larger corporations still rests on mainframe systems.
Why are mainframes still in use today?
Mainframes were designed for fast processing and massive storage. For this reason they will likely continue to be used far into the future and our need for information continues to grow
Describe the early mainframes?
First generation mainframes were based on vacuum tube technology such as IBM 650. It costs between $200,000 and $400,000 and could add or subtract about 16,000 numbers per second.
Second generation maintrames, introduced in 1950s, used transistors, which made them smaller. First & Second generation machines were sold without code as companies would develop their own.
What is sometimes referred to as mini-computers?
Third generation mainframe machines tended to be smaller than earlier models. Third generation included operating systems and multiprocessing and costs millions of dollars. Up until this point, only one user could access the processor at a time. Multiprocessing allowed for time sharing.
When were microprocessors introduced and by whom?
The microprocessor was developed in the early 1970s by Texas Instruments and Intel. It incorporated the central processing unit with some short-term memory into a single silicon "chip" using integrated circuits (ICS)
What does ICS stand for?
What were early microprocessors used for?
Originally used in items such as hand held calculators
When were the first mircrocomputers introduced. Name an example of one of the early microcomputers
The first microcomputers, like MITS Altair 8800 was developed in 1975. These early microcomputers often had no monitor and required users to develop their own programs.
How did companies like Microsoft get their start?
Early microcomputers had no software, users had to develop their own programs. Microsoft started by writing programming languages such as BASIC and operating systems (DOS) that could be used by microcomputers
When did the Lan revolution occur?
1980s. It allowed businesses shared access to data, printers and other devices
When was the commercialization of the WAN.
When was the WAN originally developed and for what use?
The networks (like the Internet) were originally developed in the late 1960s to hook together mainframe systems
What are three important lessons that can be extracted regarding the development of IT Technology?
1) Technology advances - see Moore's law. Rate of advancement has been maintained for almost 3 decades. Some changes are sustaining and some are disruptive
2) Small is powerful - history of computing can be viewed as an effort to make information technology small & powerful enough to be used almost anywhere
3) The network is the thing - Value of information technology can be measured not only in the power of the processor, but in the power of the network that can be accessed thru the machine
What are the 4 essential groups relating to hardware
Input, Process, Output, Storage Hardware
Give examples of input hardware
Give examples of output hardware
Give examples of process hardware
special function cards
Give some examples of storage hardware
What is a bit? What / why is it used?
Computers represent data using binary digits called bits.
A bit is either a zero or a one. Bits are used for computer data because they are easy to represent
For optical media (ie. DVD), a small bit is burned into the surface of the disc so that it will reflect light. What does the reflection represent?
A reflection means 1, no reflection means 0
What are 8-bit chunks of data called?
What is a kilobyte? How is it represented?
A collection of 1024 bytes.
What is a megabyte? How is it represented?
A collection of 1024 kilobytes (K)
What is a gigabyte? How is it represented?
A collection of 1024 megabytes (MB)
What is a terrabyte? How is it represented?
1024 GB (gigabytes)
How do instructions move from Main memory to the CPU
Instructions move from main memory into CPU via the data channel or bus
What is cache? What is its importance?
The CPU has a small amount of very fast memory called cache. The CPU keeps frequently used instructions in the cache. Having a large cache makes the computer faster, but cache is expensive
What is an OS?
OS is a program that controls the computer's resources as well as a block of data.
How is the speed of a CPU measured? What is the symbol
CPU speed is expressed in cycles called hertz. Common would be 3 gigahertz (3 GHz)
What does volatile and non-volatile mean? Give examples
Volatile means that the contents of memory are lost when power is turned off (cache, main memory)
Non-volatile memory survive when the power is turned off (magnetic disk, optical disk)
What are the 4 main operating systems? What are they used for?
Windows - Intel chips only, Business & Home
Mac OS - Power PC, Intel (post 2006) - graphic artists
Unix - Sun & others - Engineering, CAD
Linux - Anything - Open Office, rare, but cheap - taking over server applications from Unix (Open source)
What is the difference between horizontal-market and vertical-market software?
Horizontal-market - provides common capabilities across all organizations and industries (ie. word processing, spreadsheet programs, etc)
Vertical-market - serves the needs of the specific industry (ie. dental office software, warehouse applications, auto-repair billing tracking)
What is firmware?
Computer software that is installed into devices like computers, printers, print servers and various communication devices.
Software is coded like other software, but is loaded into special read-only memory of device.
What is BIOS?
Basic Input / Output System - an important piece of firmware
BIOS is used when a computer is initially booted up. It is required because all volatile memory was lost when the computer was shut down. The only way to get the computer running again is to provide a set of instructions in non-volatile read-only memory (ROM).
First thing a computer does when starting up is load the BIOS from ROM and run the commands provided by the firmware
What is the difference between thin and thick client?
An application that requires nothing more than a browser on a client is called a thin client
An application that requires programs other than browser on the users computer (ie. Outlook) is called a thick client.
What are viruses?
A virus is a computer program that replicates itself. If unchecked replication is like cancer, it will consume the computers resources and also take unwanted and harmful actions
What is a worm?
A work is a virus that propagates using the internet or other computer network. Worms spread faster than other viruses because they are specifically programmed to spread. Sometimes they can choke a network to the point it becomes unstable