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Circular muscles

Superior, middle and Inferior constrictor

Longitudinal muscles


Superior constrictor

O: Medial pterygoid plate, pterygoid hammulus, pterygomandibular raphe, myloyoid line of mandible, side of tongue
I: Median raphe and pharyngeal tubercule of skull
A: Constricts UPPER pharynx

Middle constrictor

O: Greater & lesser horns of hyoid, stylohyoid ligament
I: Median raphe
A:Constricts LOWER pharynx

Inferior constrictor

O: Arch of cricoid & oblique line of thyroid cartilages
I: Median raphe of pharynx
A: Constricts LOWER pharynx


O: Styloid process
I: Thyroid cartilage and pharynx muscles
A:Elevates pharynx and Larynx


O: Hard palate, aponeurosis of soft palate
I: Thyroid cartilage and pharynx muscles
A: Elevates pharynx and closes nasopharynx


O: Cartilage of auditory tube
I: Pharynx muscles
A: Elevates nasopharynx, opens auditory tube

Innervation of ALL pharyngeal muscles

Vagus nerve (CN X) via pharyngeal plexus EXCEPT Stylopharyngeus

Innervation of Stylopharyngeus

Glossopharyngeal nerve (X)

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