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Lecture 16: Evolution after Darwin: Mendel and the beginnings of genetics

Terms in this set (24)

· These are the regurgitated dirt that worms have cough out from its mouth after it has digested the digestible stuff from it.
· What Darwin noticed, the tiny bit of sand goes up the earth. It has been pushed up, just a tiny bit of sand has gone up.
· Using Darwinian observation, the power of cumulative occurrence. Any object that is bigger than the worms mouth will not be touch and thus sink.
· Darwin wanted to understand how worm works
· Once again some unusual, but very original, experiments...
· Can worms hear? Sense vibrations?
· Are they intelligent?
· Darwin concluded worms can't hear. Worms react to vibrations. They fill their stomach with dried leaves.
· Constructed fake leaves using triangular pieces of paper. Darwin found 80% of the case, the worms pull the leaves by the tip of the triangle, he concludes that though they don't have eyes or brain, they can distinguish the shape. They have basic forms of intelligence. The simplest creature still has some sort of intelligence.
· Major point of the book: show that these little ignored animals utterly transformed the world. We cannot survive without them. Cumulative effect of their action, completely change the surface of the earth. Soil is made by worms. They help to fertilize the soils. They also round of landscape.
Soils are made by worms they simply do not exist. Soils are not dirt or sand, they have biological matter in them. Soils are biological products.Worms aerate soil by their burrows, turnover soils and round around (smooth and soften) the landscape. Very fitting book to be his last book. All essential ingredients. Numerous little changes caused a huge change over a period of long time and no one has seen it before.