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Anthropocene NOtes Lecture NOvember 26
Terms in this set (34)
What is the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution
The Change of duration of the glacial-interglacial cycles from 40,000 to 100,000 years
What was the sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum, 20,00 years ago
120m lower than today
What was the sea level during the Middle Cretaceous Warm Period,100 million years ago?
100m to 200m higher than today
Sea level change can be due to which factors?
Steric sea level rise is caused by thermal expansion
Melting of the ice sheets produces a net increase in ocean mass
Global isostatic rebound causes relative sea level change by viscoelastic postglacial rebound of the solid earth
(ALL OF THE ABOVE)
NAtural Causes for climaet change are
external causes amplified by other, possibly internal causes.
Because external causes are changes in the amount of solar radiation, but the variations that actually reach the earth are too small to account for the average global temperature changes
What is climate forcing?
external causes result in changes in the amount of solar radiation:
Solar variation is a external cause where
11 year sunspot cycle, a temporary cool dark spot on the photosphere. ‣ Affects overall solar luminosity
What is Milankovitch cycles
Minor variations in the Earth's orbit around the Sun and in the tilt of the Earth's axis
What are sunspots?
Increased sunspot numbers correlate inversely with cosmic ray count. Alludes to cosmic rays involved in low level cloud formation
It is extremely ____ that the Sun has caused the observed global temperature warming trend over the past half century.
Because of the uneven distribution and Milankovitch cycles the Earth's position...
around its axis and revolution around the Sun evolve over time due to gravitational interactions with other celestial bodies in the solar system causes long-term climate change
M.Cycles eccentricity is a measure of
of Earth's orbit of its departure from circularity.
More eccentricity ---- the magnitude of seasonal changes
increases or decreases?
Eccentricity changes over a period of 100,000 years due to ----- from Jupiter and Saturn.
Land masses change temperature more quickly than oceans, because the land has a ------- --------- capaity than water
When Earth's orbit becomes more eccentric, what is the effect on seasonal changes
increasing the magnitude
What are the limits of the Milankovitch theory
Variations of Earth's climate are much more extreme than the variation in the intensity of solar radiations due to celestial mechanics
climate change or global warming occurs when
external causes are amplified by internal sources
What are some internal processes that modulate the earth's climate?
Continental Drift(tectonic forces)
Warmer temperature=More clouds to reflect GHG
the atmosphere at filtering solar radiation is dependent on the abundance of greenhouse or radiatively active gases. CO2,METHANE, AND H20.(GH EFFECT)
Samples of ancient air trapped in ice indicates that during glacial times the atmosphere contained less
carbon dioxide and methane than today.
Reflectivity of the atmosphere influences how much solar radiation reaches Earth. Furthermore, it is a
Positive feedback loop-where colder climates is reflective of energy from the sun which creates more cooling of the earth which creates more ice
What does albedo of land control
how much of solar energy is absorbed
warm episodes interspersed with glaciations likely had increased atmospheric CO2 as an important trigger.
What is the first step of Volcanic Eruptions
Can cause cooling through emission of aerosols, eruptions are a major course of CO2 and H20
What can release Enough CO2 to raise the atmospheric concentration 20 times that of today and raise average temperature as much as 10˚C
Increased Volcanism and super plumes
What is the Laki, Iceland Fissure eruption
The fissure eruption of Laki, Iceland lasted from 1783 to 1784 and was the largest lava flow in recorded history.
Major Volcanic eruptions cause
What could have been the implication of the Iceland Fissure Eruption
The harsher winters caused food stress in northern Europe, and may have precipitated the French revolution.
Movement of continents toward or away from the poles (continental drift) causes Climate change because it influences temperature over continents by
the change in subduction change the formation of mountain ranges and ocean basins, wind patterns, paths of ocean currents and atmospheric circulation.
What is thermohaline circulation? and changes in this system explains what?
Is a system that links the atmosphere with the deep ocean.
Explain why the Earth's climate seems to fluctuate between two relatively stable modes.
Interglaciation: when the ocean conveyor system is operational. ‣ Glaciation: when the ocean conveyor system has shut down
What are some ways to address the news about climate change?
It is only relevant when talking in the context of mass extinction
What is the precautionary principle?
in the absence of scientific consensus, if an action has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public or to the environment, the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking that action.
Stopped on the video
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