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Unit 7 Learning Objectives
Terms in this set (32)
the study of what genes are, how they carry information is expressed, and how they are replicated and passed to subsequent generations or other organisms.
structures containing DNA that physically carry hereditary information. Contain the genes
segment of DNA, a sequence of nucleotides, that codes for a functional product, usually a protein.
refers to the relationship among the nucleotide-base sequence of DNA, the corresponding codons of mRNA, and the amino acids for which the codons code.
the genetic composition of an organism - its entire DNA.
the expression of the genes - the proteins of the cell and the properties they confer on the organism.
DNA and genetic information
-DNA is the blueprint for a cell's proteins, including enzymes.
-DNA is obtained either from another cell in the same generation, or from a parent cell during cell division.
-DNA can be expressed within a cell or transferred to another cell through recombination and replication
two strands of the double helix separate at the replication fork, and each strand is used as a template by DNA polymerases to synthesize two new strands of DNA according to the rules of nitrogenous base pairing.
the enzyme RNA polymerase synthesizes a strand of RNA from one strand of double-stranded DNA, which serves as a template.
the process in which the information in the nucleotide-base sequence of mRNA is used to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein.
Base substitution mutation
occurs when one base pair in DNA is replaced with a different base pair.
Alterations in DNA which cause amino acid substitutions
Alterations in DNA which create stop codons
one or a few base pairs are deleted or added to DNA
Damage to DNA caused by ultraviolet radiation can be repaired by enzymes that cut out and replace the damaged portion of DNA
Transformation in Bacteria
genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as "naked" DNA in solution. Occurs naturally among a few genera of bacteria. (demonstrated in Streptococcus pneumoniae)
Conjugation in Bacteria
Requires contact between living cells.
Donor Cells are F+, Recipient cells are F-
During this process, an Hfr (plasmid incorporated chromosome) can transfer chromosomal DNA to an F-
Transduction in Bacteria
In this process, DNA is passed from one bacterium to another in a bacteriophage and is then incorporated into the recipient's DNA.
Self-replicating circular molecules of DNA carrying genes that are not usually essential for survival of the cell.
Small segments of DNA that can move from one region of a chromosome to another region of the same chromosome or to a different chromosome or a plasmid.
Genes can be transferred between unrelated species via laboratory manipulations
DNA that has been artifically manipulated to combine genes from two different sources.
Includes all industrial applications of microorganisms as well as industrial uses of genetically engineered cells
Recombinant DNA Procedures
1. A desired gene is inserted into a DNA vector such as a plasmid or viral genome.
2. The vector inserts the DNA into a new cell, which is grown to form a clone.
3. Large quantities of the gene or the gene product can be harvested from the clone.
1. A plasmid containing a new gene can be inserted into a cell by transformation.
2. Shuttle vectors are plasmids that can exist in serveral different species.
3. A viral vector containing a new gene can be inserted into a cell by tranduction.
5 Ways of getting DNA into a cell
1. Cells can take up naked DNA by transformation. Chemical treatments are used to make cells that do not naturally transform competent to take up DNA.
2. Pores made in protoplasts and animal cells by electric current in the process of electroporation can provide entrance for new pieces of DNA.
3. Protoplast fusion is the joining of cells whose cell walls have been removed.
4. Foreign DNA can be introduced into plant cells by shooting DNA-coated particles into the cells.
5. Foreign DNA can be injected into animal cells by using a fine glass micropipette.
Is made from mRNA by reverse transcription, can be cloned in gene libraries.
can be made in vitro by a DNA-synthesis machine.
Applications of Genetic Engineering
Medical Therapy (Vaccines, insulin)
Scientific (Forensic Microbiology, Southern Blotting)
Agricultural (Plant cells)
1. Obtain a sample of cells containing DNA
2. DNA cut along strand with restriction enzymes
3. Fragments of DNA sorted by electric current into a pattern
4. Transferred to a filter by blotting
Is used to make multiple copies of a desired piece of DNA enzymatically.
1. Strand of DNA serves as a template
2. Nucleotides and catalyzing enzyme added to DNA
3. Primers hybridize to the fragments to be amplified
4. Polymerase synthesizes new DNA into single strands.
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