9 terms

EOC G12 Biome Plant and Animal Adaptations

Adaptations of plants and animals for the biomes in which they live.

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Plants: small, low-growing avoid strong winds. No trees due to permafrost preventing deep roots. Leaves with hairs to help with warmth. Some plants have "antifreeze"-like substance in them.
Animals: many migrate south. Some turn white in winter for camouflage. Some have "antifreeze"-like substance. Small extremities (ears, limbs) to limit heat loss. Extra insulation of fat or downy feathers.
taiga/boreal forest
Plants: Conical shape of pine trees sheds snow. Wax-covered, small needles prevent excess water loss. Dark green color of trees absorbs extra sunlight.
Animals: Small extremities to limit heat loss. Extra insulation of fat or downy feathers. Some migrate south.
temperate deciduous forest
Plants: Deciduous trees shed leaves for winter to become dormant. Conifer needles small and waxy coating minimize water loss.
Animals: Some hibernate, some migrate. Some camouflaged to escape predators when forest bare in winter.
grassland/prairie (temperate as in U.S.)
Plants: grasses grow from their base to grow back fast after grazing by animals and from fire. Deep roots hold plants in soil. Wind disperses seeds.
Animals: Camouflage and burrowing help protect prey from predators because so easy to see them in the wide open environment.
Plants: Cactus have thick leaves to store water. Green stems to photosynthesize rather than thin leaves that lose water quickly. Needles prevent animals from eating plant.
Animals: Nocturnal (come out only at night to feed). Large ears and extremities allow large surface area to lose heat quickly.
tropical rain forest
Plants: Large leaves maximize photosynthesis in darker understory. Leaves have drip tips to allow water to drip off. Epiphytes grow in tops of trees to get sunlight.
Animals: Camouflage that can change to match surroundings. Canopy animals have adaptations for jumping, climbing, flight.
grassland/savanna (tropical as in Africa)
Plants: Grasses grow from their bases, not tips, so they can continue to grow after being grazed. Waxy leaf coverings and seasonal leaf loss to survive dry season.
Animals: Many migrate during dry season in search of water. Some smaller animals burrow and remain dormant during dry season.
Plants: Tough, waxy leaves resist water loss. Fire resistance important even though some plants need fire to germinate seeds. Some remain below ground and sprout only after a fire.
Animals: Many are browsers that eat a varied diet of grasses, leaves, shrubs. Many burrow; many are nocturnal.
temperate rain forest (NW coniferous forest)
Plants: Not as much variety as tropical rain forest due to seasonal temperature variation, but still lush, dense plant growth. Adaptations include those that allow to obtain sunlight. Trees here among the tallest in the world. Many have adaptations to avoid fungal infections due to the moist environment.
Animals: Many animals browsers that eat a variety of plants that change availability with the seasons. Camouflage helps insects and ground dwelling mammals avoid predation.