Terms in this set (44)
the study of the methods and principles through which the past becomes organized according to certain perspectives and priorities.
dividing film history into historical segments that help identify movies' shared thematic and stylistic concerns: early; between the wars; post-World War II; contemporary.
Characteristics of early cinema:
1.the shift from single to multiple shots.
2.the beginnings of continuity editing and variations in camera distance in the early elaboration of narrative form.
Two periods of Classical Hollywood cinema
silent and sound films
Hollywood came of age during classical silent period (1917-1922) with three major historical developments:
1.the standardization of film production.
2.the establishment of the feature film (approximately 100 minutes for a narrative movie).
3.the cultural and economic expansion of movies throughout society.
The most important aesthetic changes during the classical silent period included:
1.the development of narrative realism i.e. The Birth of a Nation
2.the integration of the viewer's perspective into the editing and narrative action.
"[E]diting situated viewers within the narrative action..."
Hollywood films were marked by two important stylistic changes during the synchronized sound era
1.the elaboration of movie dialogue and the growth of characterization.
2.the prominence of generic formulas in constructing film narratives
German expressionist cinema (1918-1929) - "...veered away from the movies' realist drive, with aims to:
1.concentrate on the dark fringes of human experience.
2.represent irrational forces through lighting, set, and costume design.
named for their exterior urban settings. i.e. Josef von Sternberg's The Blue Angel starring Marlene Dietrich, it features "...the grim realities of the streets [which] become excessive, morbid, and emotionally twisted." An early sound film, it was filmed in German, French, and English versions.
Soviet silent films from 1917 to 1931 represent a break from the entertainment history of the movies...[They] developed out of the Russian Revolution of 1927, suggesting its distance from the assumptions and aims of the capitalist economics of Hollywood, This resulted in:"
1.an emphasis on documentary and historical subjects.
2.a political concept of cinema centered on audience response.
Dziga Verto established what collective workshop
the Kinoki or "cinema-eyes"
French impressionist cinema (1920s and 1930s)
"...destabilized familiar or objective ways of seeing and revitalized the dynamics of human perception." i.e. Germaine Dulac's The Seashell and the Clergyman (1928) "...[it] barely concentrates on the story...Instead, it focuses on the consciousness of the central character, who remembers, hallucinates, and fantasizes within a dream logic of split screens and other strange imagistic effects."
Italian neorealism (1942-1952) revitalized film culture by:
1.depicting postwar social crises.
2.using a stark, realistic.
French new wave (1950s-1970s)
1.a break with past filmmaking institutions and genres.
2.the use of film to express a personal vision.
"Japan is one of the world's largest film-producing nations...After World War II...Japanese films increasingly incorporated Hollywood forms and styles, yet generally they:
1.place character rather than action at the center of a narrative.
2.emphasize the contemplative aspect of images.
Japanese animation which has had a transnational impact
Third Cinema aimed to:
1.reject technical perfection in opposition to commercial traditions.
2.embrace film as the voice of the people.
Argentine filmmakers Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino championed revolutionary films in opposition to Hollywood and to state-dominated film cultures elsewhere...[an approach they termed Third Cinema.]
Since the 1960s, the commercial movie industry in the United States has been noticeably affected by four forces:
1.the dominance of youth audiences.
2.the increasing influence of European art films.
4.the rise of such economic and technological innovations as blockbuster, cable, and home video.
Two trends dominate the Contemporary Hollywood
1.the elevation of image spectacles and special effects.
2.the fragmentation and reflexivity of narrative constructions.
One characteristic of the most recent chapter of Hollywood moviemaking, from about 1980 to the present, has been the idea of
the auteur, most often the directors, as a brand
New German cinema - characterized by:
1.a confrontation with Germany's Nazi and postwar past
2.an emphasis on the distinctive, often maverick, visions of individual directors.
"Danish films have been embraced by Danish audiences, international festivals, and art-house audiences."
Indian cinema is the world's most prolific, producing films in Hindi and a number of other languages. The first Indian film premiered in 1923. "The golden age of Indian cinema came in the wake of independence in 1948 with the ascendance of the Bombay-based industry...Parallel Cinema [is] an alternative to India's commercial cinema centered mainly in Calcutta." Satyajit Ray is a renowned director with Parallel Cinema. i.e. Pather Panchali (1955) a masterpiece of realist style
1.rootedness in Hindu culture and mythology.
2.elaborate song-and-dance numbers.
encompasses an entire continent and many languages, cultures, and nations.
North African cinema
has a long history, beginning with the Egyptian premiere of the Lumieres's Cinematographe in 1896. Egyptian films still dominate the movie screens of Arab countries.
sub-Saharan African cinema
includes well-financed French-language cinema of West Africa, English-speaking films, and films in many African language.
1.a focus on social and political themes rather than commercial interests.
2.an exploration of the conflicts between tradition and modernity.
includes films from the 'three Chinas': the People's Republic of China (mainland China); Hong Kong; Taiwan. "...the industries [in these areas] vary greatly in terms of commercial structure, the degree of government oversight, audience expectations, and even language. Yet they are all culturally united and increasingly economically interdependent."
cinema production was nearly halted after the 1949 Communist Revolution, and further disrupted during the Cultural Revolution during the 1960s. "It was not until the 1980s that a group of filmmakers emerged, the so-called Fifth Generation (referring to their class at the Beijing Film Academy), who were interested both in the formal potential of the medium and in critical social content."
"After the phenomenal international success of low-budget Hong Kong kung-fu films in the 19702, the Hong Kong New Wave led by...Tsui Hark introduced sophisticated style, lucrative production methods, and a canny use of Western elements to the genre." Director John Woo, with his violent action films, and stunt star Jackie Chan, gained international prominence
auteurs of the New Taiwan cinema, "...Hou Hsiao-hsien's A City of Sadness (1989) and Edward Yang's Yi yi (2000) reflect on the identity of contemporary Taiwan, positioned between mainland China, where much of its population comes from, and the West." (p. 379)
1.spare pictorial beauty, often of landscapes or scenes of everyday life on the margins.
2.an elliptical storytelling mode that developed in part as a response to state regulation.
what are determined to be essential great works
What are more available to women filmmakers than feature filmmaking?
the avant-garde, documentary, and independent movements
African American Cinema
Dominant Hollywood cinema has afforded only a limited range of representation for African, Asian, Latino, and Native Americans...Still, as a popular medium, film registers the diversity of U.S, culture even when it sometimes distorts it...[There have been] a number of films that deal centrally with race, although in a biased way and often limited to the black-white dichotomy." i.e. The Birth of a Nation (1915); The Jazz Singer (1927); Gone with the Wind (1939)
featured African American casts and were circulated to urban African American audiences in the North and shown in special segregated screenings in the South (including late-night screenings known as 'midnight rambles'.) Some race movies were produced by white entrepreneurs, but several prominent production companies were owned by African Americans.
defined the era with his charismatic and dignified onscreen presence but was typically restricted to playing overly idealized characters.
made possible by the black power movement, these 1960s and 1970s films featured streetwise African Americans; many were made by white producers, though some were made by African American filmmakers
knowing whether a filmmaker identified himself or herself as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered, or whether there is significant biographical evidence of same-sex erotic attachment, can make a difference in two contexts:
1.when sexual identity arguably affects the filmmaker's subject matter or aesthetic approach.
2.when withholding information about a filmmaker's sexual identity erases a specific historical legacy.
One of the earliest uses of film was to record the ways of life of other cultures for exhibition to audiences in the West
the use of film to document cultures for others to study
abandoned by their owners or copyright holders, or have other been neglected; includes everything from amateur films, training films, and documentaries to censored materials, commercials, and newsreels. Can also refer to "...films that have been neglected by canonical film histories and need to be recovered materially as well as critically."
Various institutions have been established to help ensure the preservation of films:
-Film Foundation (established by Martin Scorsese in 1990 to support restoration of American films)
-World Cinema Foundation (expanded the effort globally)
-New York's Museum of Modern Art
-International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF) (founded in 1938)