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Human Geo 12
Terms in this set (40)
What are the three different types of services
consumer, business, & public
In the US, which service sector constitutes the largest segment? (Figure 12-1)
Since 1975 which employment sector has grown in the US (Figure 12-3)
Tertiary sector(consumer services)
What is the purpose of central place theory?
seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in a residential system
What is a central place?
is a market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area
-centrally located to maximize accessibility
-competition creates a regular pattern of settlements
What is a market area or hinterland?
The area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted
-To establish the market area, a circle is drawn around the node of service on a map. The territory inside the circle is its market area.
What is the range of a service?
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
-The range is the radius of the circle (or hexagon) drawn to delineate a service's market area
What is the threshold of a service and which would require a larger threshold a gas station or jeweler?
the minimum number of people needed to support the service
How does the demand for a service vary among different demographic groups?
some services only appeal to certain age/customer groups (movies, thrift stores, parks)
In a developed country, larger settlements provide consumer services with large thresholds, ranges and market areas. True or False?
What is the rank size rule of urban settlements?
the second-largest city is one-half the size of the largest, the fourth-largest city is one-fourth the size of the largest
What is a primate city?
largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
What are the 4 factors used in determining the profitability of a location?
1.define the market area
2.estimate the range
3.estimate the threshold
4.predict the market share
What is the threshold for Family Dollar and Target?
What is the gravity model and its two components?
predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it
-1.more ppl living in area=more potential customers to store
-2.farther ppl are= less likely to go to store
What is a food desert?
-An area that has limited access to affordable and nutritious food
-an area where only convenience stores and fast-food restaurants are located
What is a periodic market and what is an example from the United States?
A periodic market is a collection of individual vendors who come together to offer goods and services in a location on specified days
What is an example of a service that is shared?
What are the three different types of business services found in global cities?
2.headquarters of large corps
What are the two dominant global cities (Alpha ++) (Figure 12-23)?
London & New York
What are the two types of business services commonly provided by developing countries?
1. Offshore financial services(taxes & privacy
2.back-office functions(insurance claims proccessing, payroll management, bill inquiries etc)
What are the two major factors in the transfer of some business functions to developing countries?
Low wages & speak English
Which Asian countries 'specialize' in the provision of back office functions?
India, Malaysia, Philippines
What is a basic and nonbasic business?
basic=export primarily to customers outside the settlement
nonbasic=serve primarily customers living in the same settlement
What is the advantage for a community in attracting a basic business?
exporting by the basic businesses brings more money into the local economy, thus stimulating the provision of more nonbasic services for the settlement
What is the economic base of Hartford, CT, Nashville/Louisville and Carlsbad, CA (Figure 12-28)?
Carlsbad CA=Golf equipment
Where is the growth in tech jobs the highest in the US? (Figure 12-29)
California (san fran & san jose)
What is a clustered rural settlement and in what US region are they most common?
an agricultural-based community in which a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
What is a dispersed rural settlement?
characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in settlements
Where were some of the earliest human settlements located?
What were some of the first consumer and business services provided by early settlements?
priests, building ceremonial structures, places to bury dead
What role did the Roman Empire play in establishing urban settlements, and what happened to these settlements after the Empire collapsed?
settlements were established as centers of administrative, military, and other public services as well as retail and other consumer services
What functions are associated with the largest urban settlements in medieval Europe?
power centers for lords & church leader and major market centers
What are urbanization's two components?
1.increase in PERCENT of ppl living in urban settlements
2.increase in NUMBER of ppl living in urban settlements
What are the three major differences between urban and rural settlements?
large size, high population density, and socially heterogeneous people
Which continent has the lowest level of urbanization (Figure 12-40)?
Which type of country has the highest proportion of its population living in urban areas? (Figure 12-41)
What is a megacity?
is an urban settlement with a total population in excess of 10 million people
Which continent contains most of the world's megacities? (Figure 12-42)
Where are the fastest growing cities in the world located? (Figure 12-45)
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