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AP Gov: Unit 3 Review
Terms in this set (23)
Why have interest groups grown in number and power since the foundation of the US government?
The nation has grown, political parties have weakened, and their is greater diversity in opinion.
Types of Interest Groups
Economic- pushes changes to the economy, focuses on financial benefits
Single-Issue- share a common view on a policy
Public- promote public interest
Foreign Policy- promote or oppose foreign policy
Public Sector- raise funds or pass laws that influence this sector
How do interest groups influence public policy?
Identifying issues; making political contributions; lobbying government officials. Giving media attention to issues
What makes some interest groups more effective?
Larger size, more resources, strong leadership, cohesiveness, and active members
What role do lobbyists play in influencing government?
They seek access to public officials. They provide information to members of Congress about those who lobby them
Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946
A law which required groups and individuals seeking to influence legislation to register with the secretary of the Senate and the clerk of the House of Representatives. Quarterly financial reports on expenses were also to be filed. Note new reform legislation (1995) was more stringent.
Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995
A law requiring federal lobbyists to register with the House and Senate.
What role do PACs play in the political process?
Donate funds to campaigns and candidates
What are the positives and negatives of PACs?
Influence public opinion
Favor larger PACs
Only focus on some issues
Why have political parties become weaker?
Parties don't choose candidates for office
Parties are run by radicals
How does a third party candidate affect the presidential election process?
Calls attention to issues
Makes major parties adopt issues brought up by third parties
Why is it difficult for a third party candidate to win the presidency?
Must win a state, most people vote for a major party candidate
How have party politics influenced Congress?
Party leaders become congressional chairmen.
Hold major positions
How have party politics influenced the executive branch?
Control White House appointments
Match the presidents party
Choose cabinet positions
Does media influence public opinion?
Helps set national agenda and serves as a linking mechanism between people and the government
What are the roles of media?
It is very opinionated and brings news that serves one position. It doesn't have a huge affect because of selective perception and exposure.
How has the media altered the campaign process?
Influenced public view of candidates
Also covers who is ahead and behind
Electoral College System
delegates assign to each state a number of electors equal to the total of that state's representatives and senators; instituted because the delegates at Philadelphia feared that too much democracy might lead to mob rule. 270 electoral votes required to win presidency. Winner take all system for choosing candidate
The electoral advantage a candidate enjoys by virtue of being an incumbent, over and above his or her other personal and political characteristics. More finances, name recognition, case work, etc.
Factors that influence voter turnout
income and education, race and ethnicity, gender, age, civic engagement, and interest in politics
Buckley v. Valeo
A case in which the Supreme Court of the United States upheld federal limits on campaign contributions and ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of constitutionally protected free speech. The court also stated candidates can give unlimited amounts of money to their own campaigns.
Federal Elections Campaigns Act
Placed limits on campaign contributions. Established FEC
Banned soft money, increased amount of individual contributions and limited issue ads.
Recommended textbook explanations
Magruder's American Government (Texas)
Daniel M. Shea
TEKS United States Government
Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy
Magruder's American Government
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