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communication process

1. speaker
2. message
3. channel
4. listener
5. feedback
6. interference
7. situation


person who is presenting an oral message to a listener


whatever a speaker communicates to someone else


the means by which a message is communicated


the person who receives the speaker's message


the messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker
(ex: facial expression, boos, applauses, body language)


anything that impedes the communication of a message. Can be external or internal to listeners


the time and place in which speech communication occurs

frame of reference

the sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. No two people can have exactly the same.

cultural diversity

important to have so you don't offend anybody


the belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures


the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs


presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own

global plagiarism

stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own

patchwork plagiarism

stealing ideas or language from 2 or 3 sources and passing them off as one's own

incremental plagiarism

failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people.


to restate or summarize an author's ideas in one's own words

critical thinking

focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion.


the tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being

demographic audience analysis

audience analysis that focuses on demographic factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, group membership, and racial, ethnic, or cultural background


creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people

situational audience analysis

audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and the disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion.

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