Terms in this set (42)
Gouin and Berlitz
Direct Method - Thinking, discussing and conversing in L2.
Audiolingualism Understanding of structure (grammar) not words. Drilling and memorisation (Richards and Rodgers, 2001)
Total Physical Response (TPR) The brain is biologically programmed to learn language as a child through movement. TPR mirrors this. Faster and more meaningful learning.
Silent Way - A method where the teacher is a 'facilitator', remaining silent, encouraging the students to speak and use language. Uses cuisenaire rods and a Fidel chart.
Communicative Language Teaching - Opposed to audiolingualism. Teaching language as communication with focus on meaning rather than accuracy. Function over form.
Krashen and Terrel, 1983
The natural approach - Create conditions for 'natural language acquisition' to take place. Emphasis on communication. Ties in with lots of Krashen's theories.
Task-based Learning Teaching - language acquisition is an unconscious process facilitated by the learner meaning, saying and doing .
CLIL - Content and Language Integrated Learning - subjects are taught through a foreign language with dual-focussed aims, namely the learning of content, and the simultaneous learning of a foreign language.
Too much time on devices - It's argued that 'Some educators believe that students spend too much time with digital devices, which contributes to an alienation of students in the classroom'.
Noticing language in context - Stresses how noticing examples of language in context is central to language acquisition.
Multiple Intelligences - The idea that human intelligence is comprised of a varied set of abilities rather than a single, all-encompassing one. A relatively simple and accessible way understand and explain people's preferred ways to learn and develop. VAKOG (1920s) It's all nonsense (Dellar)
What colleagues notice - Colleagues can hear and notice things in the class that the teacher may not be aware of.
Teacher-fronted classroom activities tend not to promote discussion, but by adapting questioning strategies lessons can become student-centred.
Lambert and Gardner, 1972
Instrumental Motivation - Acquiring a second language for a specific reason, such as a job.
Using technology in the classroom is advocated. 'to access dictionaries, to research on the web or take polls' or for independent study outside the classroom 'to play games, to listen to podcasts, to learn vocab'.
Peer observation, in various forms and team teaching (teaching a class together) are two key ways for teachers to develop their awareness of their own teaching.
It's been identified that when students are learning to pass tests they tend not to acquire knowledge or learn to construct patterns of logical thought, but instead for example, become adept at recognising random facts for multiple choice tests.
It's highlighted how camera phones 'provide a great way to ask learners to 'notice' grammar around them'.
Being Observed - We learn a lot by seeing our lesson through an observer's eyes, as well as watching our colleagues and taking inspiration from their lesson.
Speaking confidence - Building everyone's confidence in speaking in whole-class activities is advocated so participation carries over to group work.
Lambert and Gardner, 1972
Integrative Motivation - Learning a language in order to become an integrated member of a particular society.
Differentiating teacher talk - Highlights the importance of differentiating teacher talk for the stronger students and the struggling students.
Students record themselves - It's identified how 'learners can record themselves speaking English and share it with friends, who can offer feedback'.
Reasons for teaching grammar - Two reasons are identified for teaching grammar. The first is comprehensibility - for the learner to be able to understand and be better understood. The second is acceptability e.g. to pass an exam, impress an employer, avoid being considered 'uneducated' etc.
Deci and Ryan, 1985
Intrinsic Motivation - Doing something because you enjoy it.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD) - An innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language. Everyone has something in their brain that allows language learning to occur.
Active involvement in the learning process - Second language acquisition research suggests that in classrooms where learners are actively involved in the learning process and the opportunities for interaction are maximised, acquisition is facilitated.
Finishing quickly - Found students often focus on task completion and produce only the minimal linguistic output to complete the task.
Lexical Approach - An approach that chooses vocabulary (including collocations /chunks) as the focus. "Language consists of grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar".
Uses of video in the classroom - Jamie Keddie lists six main reasons for using video in the language classroom: Motivation, Language Input, Language Output, Content, Models, Skills.
Sharing personal information aids the learning process / related to the humanistic approach - Caring and Sharing
Differentiation has been defined as 'an approach to teaching that attempts to ensure that all students learn well, despite their many differences'
Second Language Acquisition - SLA The study of how second (or additional) languages are acquired. It is a relatively new field of study, emerging in the wake of behaviorism to offer a satisfactory explanation of either first or second language acquisition.
Deci and Ryan, 1985
Extrinsic Motivation - Doing something for a reward from others.
Teaching collocations can result in an improvement of a learners' oral fluency, reading speed and listening comprehension.
Input Hypothesis - Students acquire language by understanding input that is just above their current level of proficiency i+1.
All chunks and no pineapple - Lexical chunks aren't very useful unless the grammar and structure are provided in which to implement them. Lexical Approach: A journey without maps?
Task-based Learning Teaching - Focus on the language that comes up in the task.
The second language reading process is 'interactive'
Trying to work out vocab you don't understand is an active process called the 'psycholinguistic guessing game'
Alderson and Urquhart, 1984
There a now a considerable body of suggests that activating schematic knowledge before reading is an important aspect of reading methodology
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