33 terms

Rock Types

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Igneous Rocks
when magma or lava cools or hardens you get this type of rock, also this is the oldest type of rock
Slow Cooling
type of cooling that leaves big crystals in rocks
Fast Cooling
type of cooling that leaves small or no crystals in rocks
Metamorphic Rocks
if you add heat or pressure to an existing rock you get this
Foliated Metamorphic Rocks
when minerals line up in rocks you get this, an example is slate
Non Foliated Metamorphic Rocks
when minerals don't line up in rocks an example is marble
Sedimentary Rocks
when sediments deposits harden, it makes up 75% of land surface
Three
this is the number of different sedimentary rocks
Sediment
tiny pieces of mineral
Gravel
largest sediment size
Clay
smallest sediment size
Strata
this is horizontal sediment layers
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
the type of rock that depends on the sediment size
Conglomerate
clastic sedimentary rock, made of gravel
Sandstone
clastic sedimentary rock, made of sand
Siltstone
clastic sedimentary rock, made of silt
Shale
clastic sedimentary rock, made of clay
Sandstone/Shale
makes up most of Punxsy's bedrock
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
when chemical sediments harden harden under water, example: limestone
Calcite
main mineral in limestone
Organic Sedimentary Rocks
when sediments bury the living remains of plants and animals, example: coal
Peat
an organic sediment, the first stage of coal
Lignite
second stage of coal, soft and brownish
Bituminous
third stage of coal, black and brittle
Anthracite
last coal stage, hard and black contains the most carbon
Sorting
the changing of sediment size/shape as you move away from the source area
Well rounded, small sediments
when sand is carried away from the shore this happens to the size
Big, angular sediments
when sand is not carried away from the shore this is the size of the sediment
Magma and Lava
molten rock
Magma
below the surface
Lava
above the surface
Earth's Age
4.5 Billion Years old
Oldest Igneous Rock
3.8 Billion Years Old