Upgrade to remove ads
ANAT 391 Midterm 2
Terms in this set (134)
What are the 3 types of muscular tissue?
1. Skeletal muscle
2. Smooth muscle
3. Cardiac muscle
What criteria is used to name muscles?
Shape, size or function
What nerve are the muscles of facial expression (superficial muscles of the face) innervated by?
Cranial Nerve VII (Facial Nerve)
What is the function of orbicularis oculi?
Closes the eyes
What is the function of orbicularis oris?
Closes mouth or purse lips
What is the function of nasalis?
Flattens nose and widens nostrils
Name the muscles of mastication (4)
3. Lateral pterygoid
4. Medial pterygoid
What nerve are the muscles of mastication innervated by?
Cranial Nerve V (Trigeminal Nerve)
What is the prime mover of elevation of the mandible and also clenches the teeth?
What is the origin and insertion of the medial pterygoid muscle?
Arises from sphenoid bone and inserts into mandible
What is the origin and insertion of the lateral pterygoid muscle?
arise from sphenoid bone and inserts into condyle of mandible and the articular disc of the TMJ
What is the function of the medial and lateral pterygoid?
move mandible from side to side
How many extraocular muscles are there and what cranial nerves (3) innervate them?
CN III (oculomotor)
CN IV (Trochlear)
CN VI (abducens)
Name the longitudinal muscle of the pharynx and its function
2. Elevates pharynx
What is the function of the circular muscle of the pharynx?
What cranial nerve are most of the muscles of the soft palate innervated by?
CN X (Vagus)
What are the functions of the muscles of the soft palate?
Soft palate moves up to block nasal cavity to allow food to go down pharynx and elevates and stretches soft palate
Name the two extrinsic muscles of the tongue
Where do the extrinsic muscles of the tongue start from and insert to?
Start from bone outside the tongue and insert in the tongue
Where do the intrinsic muscles of the tongue start from and insert to?
Both ends are in the same region (ie. they start and end inside the tongue)
What cranial nerve innervates all the muscles of the tongue?
CN XII (hypoglossal)
What cranial nerve are all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx innervated by?
CN X (vagus)
What is the function of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
Move laryngeal cartilages and can change tension in vocal cords
Name the 5 muscles of the neck
2. Infrahyoid muscles
3. Suprahyoid muscles
4. Scalene muscles
5. Prevertebral muscles
What are the deep muscles of the neck innervated by?
The anterior rami of spinal nerves
What is the movement of the sternocleidomastoid?
Contralateral rotation of the head
What cranial nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid?
CN XI (Accessory)
How many scalene muscles are on each side of the neck?
Where do the scalene muscles arise from and insert to?
They arise from transverse processes of cervical vertebrae and insert into first and second ribs
Where are the prevertebral muscles stretch from and to?
Either between upper thoracic and cervical vertebrae or between cervical vertebrae and the base of the skull
What is the function of the prevertebral muscles?
Flexion of head and neck
What cranial nerve are the trapezius innervated by?
CN XI (Accessory)
What are the functions of the upper, middle and lower fibers of the traps?
1. upper = elevates shoulder
2. middle =retract shoulder
3. lower = depress shoulder
What is the latissimus dorsi innervated by?
Thoracodorsal nerve of the brachial plexus
What is the function of the latissimus dorsi?
Extend shoulder and adduct arm
What is the function of the serratus posterior superior and what does it help with?
It elevates the rib cage which helps with inhalation
What is the function of the serratus posterior inferior and what does it help with?
It depresses the rib cage which helps with exhalation
Which ribs does the serratus posterior superior insert to?
Which ribs does the serratus posterior inferior insert to?
Ribs XI and XII
What are the erector spinae muscles innervated by?
Dorsal rami of spinal nerves
What is the function of the erector spinae muscles?
To keep the body straight
What is the transversospinalis innervated by?
Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves
What is the pectoralis major innervated by?
The pectoral nerve
What is the function of the pectoralis major?
To rotate arm medially and adduct shoulder
What is the function of serratus anterior
Stabilizes scapula (fixes scapula against thorax)
What are the intercostal muscles innervated by?
What is the function of the different layers of the intercostal muscles?
External layer - elevate ribs
Internal and innermost layers - depress ribs
What are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm mostly innervated by?
Median nerve (and some Ulnar nerve - ie. flexor carpi ulnaris, and flexor digitorum profundus (innervated by both)
Where do the majority of the muscles of the anterior compartment arise from?
Medial epicondyle of humerus (via common flexor tendon)
What are the two major movements muscles of the anterior compartment are involved in?
Flexion and pronation of the forearm and flexion of the wrist and fingers
Where do the muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm mostly insert?
Radius, metacarpals and phalanges
Where do the majority of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm insert to?
Radius, metacarpals, and phalanges via extensor hood (also known as dorsal digital expansion)
Where do the majority of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm arise from?
Lateral epicondyle of the humerus (via common extensor tendon)
What movements are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm involved in?
Extension of the wrist and fingers and supination of the forearm
What are all the muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm innervated by?
What is the mediastinum space bounded by?
Anteriorly - by the sternum and costal cartilages
Laterally - by the lungs
Posteriorly - by the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae
What does the mediastinum contain?
The heart, its large vessels and esophagus, trachea and thoracic aorta
How is the mediastinum divided into the superior and inferior parts?
Anteriorly- transverse imaginary plane passing through the sternal angle
Posteriorly - Intervertebral disc between vertebrae TIV and TV
How is the inferior mediastinum divided?
The middle mediastinum
The anterior mediastinum
The posterior mediastinum
What is the middle mediastinum occupied by?
The heart and pericardium
Where is the posterior mediastinum located between?
The pericardium and bodies of vertebrae TV to TXII
Where is the anterior mediastinum located between?
The sternum and pericardium
What does the superior mediastinum contain?
The arch of the aorta and its branches
Right and left brachiocephalic veins
Inferior part of the superior vena cava
End of the azygus vein
Right and left phrenic nerves
Right and left vagus nerves
What does the anterior mediastinum mainly contain?
The thymus gland
What does the middle mediastinum contain?
The main vessels of the heart (the ascending aorta, pulmonary trunk and pulmonary veins)
Right and left phrenic nerves
What does the posterior mediastinum contain?
Azygus and Hemiazygus veins
Right and left vagus nerves
Sympathetic chain (trunk)
What 4 major landmarks are used to locate the heart?
1. Left second intercostal space, 1 inch away from the midline (the left border of the sternum)
2. Right third costal cartilage, 1 inch away from the midline (the right border of the sternum)
3. Right sixth costal cartilage, 1 inch away from the midline (Or 5th costal cartilage if lying down) (in touch with the right border of the sternum)
4. Left fifth intercostal space, 3 to 4 inches away from the midline (left border of the sternum)
What marks the apex of the heart?
The left fifth intercostal space, about 3-4 inches away from the left border of the sternum and it lies on the midclavicular line
What does the coronary sulcus separate?
It encircles the heart and separates the atria from the ventricles (also called atrioventricular sulcus)
Where are the interventricular sulci located?
Between the ventricles on the anterior and inferior surfaces
What does the interarterial sulucs separate?
It separates the atria on the outside
What are the 4 surfaces of the heart?
1. Anterior (sternocostal) surface
2. Inferior (diaphragmatic) surface
3. Left pulmonary surface
4. right pulmonary surface
What are the 3 borders of the heart?
1. The superior border (formed by the left atrium)
2. The right border (formed by the right atrium)
3. The inferior border (separates the anterior surface from the inferior surface)
Where is the heart base located?
Posteriorly and is mainly formed by the left atrium
What sulcus is located on the base of the heart?
The interatrial sulcus
What is the apex of the heart formed by?
The left ventricle and is directed anteriorly, inferiorly and to the left
What are the muscles of the hand mostly innervated by?
The ulnar nerve
(Thenar muscles are innervated by the median nerve and the lumbricals are innervated by either the median or ulnar nerve)
What are the three transitional areas of the upper limb?
What are transitional areas?
Areas in the upper and lower limbs where major blood arteries and nerves pass from one region to another region
What are the main contents of the cubital fossa?
Brachial artery and median nerve
What does the axilla act as a passage for?
Blood vessels and nerves of the upper limb (axillary artery and vein and cords of the brachial plexus)
What does the carpal tunnel contain?
The tendons of flexor muscles of fingers and median nerve
Muscles of the superficial group of the gluteal region are major what movers of the hip joint?
Extensor and abductors of the hip joint
Muscles of the deep group os the gluteal region are major waht movers of the hip joint?
Predominantly lateral rotators of the hip joint
What are the deep muscles of the gluteal region innervated by?
Branches of the sacral plexus
What are the 4 superficial muscles of the gluteal region?
1. Gluteus maximus
2. Gluteus minimus
3. Gluteus medius
4. Tensor fascia lata
All fo the superficial muscles of the gluteal region are innervated by the superior gluteal nerve except for what? And what is it innervated by?
The gluteus maximus is innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve
What are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh innervated by?
What are the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh mostly innervated by?
What are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the thigh innervated by?
What are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg innervated by?
Deep fibular nerve
What are the muscles of both the deep and superficial layers of the posterior compartment of the leg innervated by?
What movement are the superficial muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg responsible for?
Plantarflexors of the ankle joint
What movement are the deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg responsible for?
Flexion of the toes
What are the muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg innervated by?
Superficial fibular nerve
What are all four layers of the muscles of the plantar aspect of the foot innervated by?
Tibial nerve (in summary) (medial or lateral plantar nerves? - in text)
What is the axis of abduction and adduction in the foot?
What is the only muscle of the dorsum of the foot and what is its function and what is it innervated by?
Extensor digitorum brevis
Assists in extension of the toes
Innervated by the deep fibular nerve
What are the 3 transitional areas of the lower limb?
1. Femoral triangle
2. Popliteal fossa
3. Tarsal tunnel
What are the main contents of the femoral triangle?
What is located at the popliteal fossa?
Common fibular nerve
What does the tarsal tunnel contain?
Tendons of deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg
Posterior tibial artery and vein
How many bones are in the hand?
What is more powerful supination or pronation of the hand? Why?
Because biceps brachii muscle is involved in supination
What are the two muscles that are involved in supination of the hand?
What are the two muscles that are involved in pronation of the hand?
What type of muscles is the Power Grip powered by?
What movements are involved in the Precision Grip using the small muscles of the hand?
Adduction and Abduction of the fingers and positioning of the thumb
The opponens pollicis muscle facilitates the rotation of the metacarpal of the thumb. This twists the thumb so the thumb can oppose other fingers.
The interossei muscles facilitate adduction and abduction of the fingers
Modifies action of long tendon muscles in forearm
What is the function of the lumbricals in the hand?
The contraction of the lumbricals allows for flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joints while extending the interphalangeal joints
What are the 2 primary functions of the lower limb?
1. To support the body weight when standing
2. Move the body through space
What is the boundary of the inguinal ligament and what does it separate?
1. runs from ASIS to pubic tubercle
2. Separates lower limb from abdominal wall
On the posterior aspect what separates the lower limb from the trunk?
The iliac crest and sacrum
Where is the center of gravity located?
Immediately anterior to the SII vertebra
How many bones are in the foot?
What is the design of the lower limbs during standing aimed at?
Reducing the amount of energy consumed by the body when the body is maintaining the standing posture
What are 3 strategies the body uses to maintain a low energy and stable position while standing?
1. Stable support base: circular and arched
2. Knees are together - helping position the body around the center of gravity
3. Hip, knee and ankle joints are locked to reduce energy consumption
Where does the line of gravity fall when in the standing position?
Posterior to the hip joint and anterior to the knee and ankle joints
The weight of the body is on the lower limb during a strike to toe off (60% of the stride)
40% of the stride
What is the goal of the determinants of gait?
Aim to minimize the movements of the center of gravity and reduce amount of energy consumed by the body when walking
What are the 5 determinants of gait?
1. Pelvic tilt in the coronal plane
2. Pelvic rotation in the transverse plane
3. Knee flexion
4. Movement of knees closer to midline
5. Knee, ankle and foot interactions
Pelvic tilt in the coronal plane
Abductor muscles in the gluteal region on the opposite side prevent excessive drop of the hip onto the lower limb (but allow for slight dipping of the hip)
Keeps the peak rise of the COG lower than it would be if the pelvis did not drop
Pelvic rotation in the transverse plane
Effectively lengthens the limbs and prevents the COG from excessive drop at its lowest point
Knee joint is not locked while walking
Minimizes deviation (elevation in this case) of COG from its original position
Movement of knees closer to midline
Reduces lateral shift in COG
Knee, ankle and foot interactions
Prevent abrupt changes in vertical movement of the COG
Abrupt upward movement of COG after heel strike is dampened by knee flexion, ankle plantarflexion (??) and foot pronation
What are DMD and BMD characterized by?
Progressive wasting of the muscles
What is more common BMD or DMD
What muscles are affected first?
Feet, fronts of thighs, hips, belly, shoulders and elbows
What are signs of DMD or BMD?
Walking on tip toes
Curvature of the spine
What are some therapeutic strategies for DMD?
1. Cell therapy: Myoblast or stem cell transplantation
2. Pharmacological approach: reduction of inflammation
3. Gene therapy: delivery of the DNA encoding dystrohin
True or False: MD is a genetic disease
What is the pseudohypertrophy a result of?
It is due to the infiltration of connective tissue and adipose tissue into the muscle tissue
Where are nuclei located in DMD affected patients compared to normal skeletal muscles?
They are located within the muscle cells in DMD and in the periphery in normal cells
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Anat 391 Digestive System
Lower Limb- Anat 391
DAT General Biology 5
All The Modules
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
NPLEX Study Questions - Myology
Muscles (Topic 8)
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
GOV - Constitution/DeclarationIndep/Bill of Rights…
Psychology Final Exam
SOCI 1001 - Ch 11 Health and Society
Ch 6 Start up regulation and financing