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Anatomy Chapter 14 Digestive System
Terms in this set (164)
Local collections of the lymphatic system found in the submucosa of the small intestine are
a. duodenal papillae.
b. plicae circulares.
d. Peyer's patches.
The number of teeth in a full set of baby teeth is
The largest gland in the body is the
The hormone responsible for promoting the release of pepsinogens, mucus, and hydrochloric acid in the stomach is call
This bicarbonate-rich (alkaline) juice begins starch digestion in the mouth.
The chemical responsible for about half of protein digestion and all of fat digestion is
d. Pancreatic juice
Bile is formed in the
What two organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine
a. Appendix and pancreas
b. Cecum and appendix
c. Spleen and liver
d. Liver and pancreas
Protein digestion begins in the:
c. Small intestine
d. Large intestine
Essential amino acids are
a. amino acids needed to make proteins.
b. amino acids our body makes.
c. amino acids our body cannot make and that must be in our diet.
d. all 20 amino acids in our body.
Which one is NOT a main role of the liver
a. Detoxify drugs and alcohol
b. Add ammonia to the blood
c. Make cholesterol
d. Degrade hormones
Ketoacidosis results from the incomplete breakdown of
The energy value of foods commonly counted by dieters is measures in units of
d. Carb units
Which accessory digestive organ is situation retroperitoneal
The lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and other lipids to body cells is called
c. Both a & b
d. None of the above
This extension of the peritoneum covers the abdominal organs and contains fat and lymphoid follicles.
b. Muscularis externa
c. Lesser omentum
d. Greater omentum
What happens in your body when a stimulus is detected that increases body temperature?
-remember the see-saw picture
-blood warmer than hypothalamic set point activates heat-loss center in the hypothalamus
-sweat glands are activated: perspiration
-skin blood vessels dilate: heat radiates from skin surface
-body temp decreases causing the hypothalamus heat-loss center to shut-off
Also called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
Performs the whole menu of digestive functions (ingests, digests, absorbs, and defecates)
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
Teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbadder
Accessory Digestive Organs
Mouth, a mucous membrane-lined cavity.
Lips, protect anterior opening
Form lateral walls of the oral cavity
forms anterior roof of oral cavity
forms posterior roof of oral cavity
Fleshy finger-like projection of the soft palate, which extends inferior from the posterior edge of the soft palate.
The space between the lips and cheeks externally and the teeth and gums internally
The area contained by the teeth
Oral cavity proper
occupies the floor of the mouth. bones attached include: hyoid bone and the styloid processes of the skull
Tongue and attachments
covers the base of the tongue
at the posterior end of the oral cavity are paired messes of lymphatic tissue
taste buds on the tongue surface
posterior to the oral cavity
continuous with the esophagus
Runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach.
4 Basic tissue layers of the esophagus to the large intesine
The innermost tissue layer of the alimentary canal organs. A moist membrane that lines the cavity (or Lumen) of the organ. It consists primarily of a surface epithelium, plus a small amount of connective tissue and a scanty smooth muscle layer.
Found just beneath the muscosa. It is a soft connective tissue layer containing blood vessels, nerve endings, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and lymphatic vessels.
a muscle layer typically made up of an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer if smooth muscle cells.
Outermost layer of the tissue wall in the alimentary canal. It consists of a single layer of flat serous fluid producing cells, the visceral peritoneum. Visceral peritoneum is continues with slick, slippery parietal peritoneum, which lines the abdominopelvic cavity by way of a membrane extension called the mesentery.
A single layer of flat, serous fluid producing cells.
The visceral peritoneum is continues with this slick and slippery stuff
Membrane extension lined with parietal peritoneum.
When peritoneum is infected. The peritoneal membranes tend to stick together around the infection site.
Submucosal nerve plexus
myenteric nerve plexus
Two intrinsic nerve plexuses
Food enters the stomach through from the esophagus
Where chyme enters the small intestine from the stomach.
Mucosa collapses inward on itself in the stomach when it is empty into these large folds.
a double layer of peritoneum, extends from the liver to the lesser curvature.
Extension of peritoneum, drapes downward and covers the abdominal organs like a lacy apron before attaching to the posterior body wall. Riddled with fat that insulates, cushions and protects abdominal organs.
Salivary Amylase- site of action= mouth
Pancreatic Amylase- site of action= small intestine
Enzymes and site of action for carbohydrate digestion
Brush border enzymes in small intestine: dextrinase, glucoamylase, lactase, maltase and sucrase.
-site of action= small intestine
Enzymes and site of action for Glucose and other "-ose's"
Enzymes and site of action for protein (large polypeptide) digestion Pepsin (stomach glands) in presence of HCI
-site of action= stomach
Enzymes and site of action for protein (large polypeptide) digestion
Enzymes and site of action for small polypeptides digestion Pancreatic enzymes: trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase and dipeptidase.
-site of action= small intestine
Enzymes and site of action for small polypeptides digestion
Brush border enzymes: aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase and dipeptidase
-site of action= small intestine
Enzymes and site of action for amino acids digestion
Unemulsified fats- emulsified by the detergent action of bile salts from the liver.
-site of action= small intestine
Enzymes and site of action for fat digestion
many deep, narrow channels in the stomach lining that lead into gastric glands
digestive secretions of the stomach glands consisting chiefly of hydrochloric acid and mucin and the enzymes pepsin and rennin and lipase
intrinsic factor a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
A cell of the gastric glands that secretes pepsinogen (breaks down protein) and gastric lypase
Protein-digesting enzyme produced by cheif cells
Produces corrosive hydrochloric acid, which makes the stomach contents acidic and activates the enzymes, as in the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin by hydrochloric acid
Secrete hormones (such as gastrin) that regulate digestion
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum
The body's major digestive organ. A muscular tube extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine.
Longest section of alimentary tube, with an average length of 2 to 4m in a living person.
3 subdivisions of Small Intestine (in order)
first part of small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
middle portion of small intestine where chemical digestion ends and absorption begins
the last and longest portion of the small intestine; extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine
60% in length of the small intestine!
valve between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine
ducts coming into the duodenum that transport enzymes from the pancreas. They complete chemical breakdown of foods in the small intestine
Tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.
3 structures that increase the absorption of the small intestine
Tiny hair-like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
A term that describes the microvilli of the small intestine's lining. These microvilli tremendously increase the small intestine's absorptive capacity.
Bears enzymes (brush border enzymes) that complete digestion of proteins and carbs
fingerlike projections of the mucosa that give it a velvety appearance and feel, much like the soft nap of a towel. These projections aid in producing more surface area for absorption. Contains lacteals.
Within each villus is a rich capillary bed and modified lymphatic capillary of the small intestine
permanent ridges in the mucosa of the small intestine; enhance absorption by increasing surface area and causing chyme to spiral rather than move in a straight line
Also called "plicae circulares"
located on the walls of the ileum; work with the immune system to protect against the entry of pathogens through the digestive system
subdivisions of the large intestine
The first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens.
a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch
Inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
Transverse Colon the part of the large intestine that extends across the abdominal cavity and joins the ascending to the descending colon
the part of the large intestine that descends from the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon
an S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum below
A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body.
voluntary skeletal muscle that controls the expulsion of feces from the anal canal
External Anal Sphincter
involuntary smooth muscle in anal canal; remains closed until pressure of feces opens it
Internal Anal Sphincter
Pouches in the wall of the large intestine that expand to accommodate the bulk of undigested materials
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
the largest of the salivary glands which lie just below and in front of the ear
in the floor of the mouth along the inner surfaces of the mandible; their ducts open into the mouth behind the teeth on either side of the lingual frenulum
sublingual glands the smallest of the salivary glands located on the floor of the mouth which empty into the mouth
saliva the fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion. Aids in binding food together into a bolus
A term used to describe food after it has been chewed and mixed with saliva
an enzyme that is a bicarbonate-rich (alkaline) juice that begins the process of starch digestion in the mouth.
A soft pink triangular gland that extends across the abdomen from the spleen to the duodenum. Produces enzymes that breakdown ALL kinds of foods. (Also produces insulin and glucagon)
Largest gland in the body. Has four lobes. Produces bile.
a ligament that attaches part of the liver to the diaphragm and the abdominal wall
A mixture of salts and phospholipids that aids in the breakdown of fat. It is produced in the liver.
Duct which carries bile out of the liver to the cystic duct or the common bile duct and delivers the bile into the duodenum.
common hepatic duct
a sac on the underside of the liver that stores bile produced by the liver
When food is not digestion bile backs up into this and enters the gallbladder to be stored.
Food must be placed into the mouth before it can be acted on. This is active and a voluntary process.
involuntary alternative waves of contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the organ wall.
To squeeze the food along the tract
moves food only back and forth across the internal wall of the organ. This serves to mix it with digestive juices. -mechanical digestion.
occurs when enzymes and other chemicals break down large food molecules into smaller ones
Mechanical digestion Type of digestion: The process through which your food is physical broken down into smaller, more manageable pieces. The result is a physical change.
chewing of the food
involuntary portion of deglutition where food enters the esophagus and it carries it to the stomach
pharyngeal esophageal phase
a digestive hormone secreted by the stomach lining; stimulates the secretion of fluid by gastric glands in the stomach
A protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the chief cells of the gastric glands. It is secreted in its inactive form (pepsinogen) and is activated by gastric acid. It is unusual in that its pH optimum is around 1-2; most of these enzymes in the body function best at neutral pHs
carried by the micovilli of the small intestine that breaks down double sugars into simple sugars and complete protein digestion
brush border enzymes
liquid secreted by the pancreas which contains a variety of enzymes; aids in the digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Destruction of the pancreatic cells from the blockage of bile duct which causes pancreatic enzymes to back up into the pancreas. Outcome can be fatal.
influence the release of pancreatic juice and bile.
Secretin and Cholecystokinin (CCK)
slow segmenting movements in the small intestine lasting about one minute that occure about every 30 minutes. aids in water absorption
Mass Movements long, slow-moving contractile waves that move over large areas of the colon three or four times a day and force the contents toward the rectum.
watery stools. result from any condition that rushes food residue through the large intestine before that organ has had sufficient time to absorb the water.
food residue remains in the large intestine for extended periods. Too much water is absorbed and the stool becomes hard and difficult to pass.
-lack of fiber in diet or poor bowel habits.
Chemical energy form needed by body cells to drive their many activities.
Energy value of foods "calories"
a substance in food that is used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.
carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
these make up the bulk of what we eat
Vitamins and minerals -required in minute amounts.
sugars and starches -derived from plants.
Mostly triglycerides (neutral fats) , Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
molecules that are basically amino acid polymers. Eggs, milk, fish and most meat proteins are "complete proteins". Where as legumes are "incomplete proteins"
Essential Amino Acids 8 amino acids that our body cannot make. Must be taken in during diet.
Essential Amino Acids
organic nutrients of various forms that the body requires in small amounts. A balanced diet is the best way to ensure a full vitamin complement.
Most vitamins function as these -they act with an enzyme to accomplish a particular type of catalysis.
is a broad term referring to all chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life.
in which substances are broken down to simpler substances
in which larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones.
"bood sugar" is the major breakdown product of the carbohydrate digestion.
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
electron transport chain
abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
or "ketoacidosis", excessive acidity of blood due to an accumulation of acids or an excessive loss of bicarbonate
Breath takes on a fruity smell due to acetone entering the lungs
a soluble nitrogenous waste produced in the liver by a metabolic cycle that combines ammonia with carbon dioxide.
glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
the conversion of glucose to glycogen when the glucose in the blood exceeds the demand
breakdown of glycogen to glucose
The formation of glycogen, a glucose storing compound, from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates.
not an energy fuel. 85% of it is made by our own liver.
Serves the structural basis of steroid hormones and Vitamin D, and is a major building block of plasma membranes.
transport cholesterol and other lipids to body cells, where they are used various ways. (if large amount in blood, it can be deposited on the arterial walls)
low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
lipoproteins that transport cholesterol from the tissue cells (or arteries) to the liver for disposal in bile.
high-density lipoproteins (HDLs)
the energy that is liberated during food oxidation.
=total energy output which is (heat+work+energy storage)
includes energy we immediately lose as heat, plus that used to do work, plus energy that is stored in the form of fat or glycogen.
is the amount of heat produced by the body per unit of time when it is under basal conditions -at rest.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
produced by the thyroid gland and is probably the most important factor determining a person's BMR; hence it has been dubbed the "metabolic hormone"
condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
excess thyroxine production (Grave's disease), caused by autoimmune disorder. Symptoms; enlarged thyroid, muscle weakness, increased metabolic rate, sweating etc.. Treatment; remove thyroid, drugs & radioactive iodine.
refers to the total amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel all ongoing activity that increase this.
Total Metabolic Rate (TMR)
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