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Posterior (PA) Projection
Either left or righ lateral radiograph taken with the patient standing up, with the lungs full inspiration
Anteroposterior (AP) Radiograph
obtained at the patients bedside when a patient is seriously ill or immobilized
what are the disadvantages of the AP radiograph
the heart and mediastinum are significantly magnified, has less resolution and more distortion
taken with the side of the patient pressed against the cassette with arms raised
Lateral decubitus radiograph
obtained by having the patient lie on the side ratheer than having them stand in an upright position, useful when diagnosis of a suspected or known fluid accumulation in the plural space is not easily seen in the PA radiograph.
an outline of air-containing bronchi beyond the normal point of visibility. It develops as a result of an infiltration or consolidation that surrounds the bronchi, producing a contrasting air column on the radiograph-it appears as dark tubes surrounded by a white area produced by the infiltration or consolidation
a radiolucent (dark) area surrounded by dense tissue (white) a cavity is the hallmark of a lung abscess.
the act of becoming solid; commonly used to describe the solidification of the lung caused by a pathologic engorcement of the alveoli, as occurs in acute pneumonia
any poorly defined radiodensity (white area) commonly used to describe an inflammatory lesion
state of being opague (white) an opague area or spot, impervious to light rays, or by extensions, x-rays; opposite of translucent or radiolucent
the state of being radiolucent; the property of being partly or wholly permeable to x-rays commonly used to describe darker areas on a radiograph such as an emphysematous lung or pneumothorax
permitting the passage of light, commonly used to describe darker areas of the radiograph.
replacement of normal air adjacent to the structures of the thorax causing a loss of contrast -aorta, heart, diaphragms
normal air-filled bronchus surrounded by a lung with increased density. May appear as a dark circle or dark branching. Good indicator that consolidation is in the lung and not the pleura
ground glass appearance
diffuse, sometimes called an alveolar process, and represents alveolar filing at a microscopic level. Hazy appearance looks like ground glass-associated with rds
computed tomography (CT)
provides a series of cross sectional pictures (tomograms) of the structures within the body at numerous levels. Helpful in confirming the presence of mediastinal mass, small pulmonary nodule, small lesions of tthe bronchi,a small pneuumothorax, plural effusionss and small tumors
positron emission tomography (PET)
shows both anatomic structures and the metabolic activity of the tissues and organs scanned, good for early detection of cancerous lesions
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
uses magnetic resonance as its source of energy to take cross-sectional images of the body. can detect subtle lesions.
Ventilation-Perfusion (V/Q) scan
used to detect a pulmonary embolism. Dark areas show good blood flow and white or lighter areas show decreased blood flow
provides a bronchogram and is used to diagnose bronchgenic carcinoma and determine the presencee or extent of bronchiectasis (has been replaced with the CT Scan
what are signs of a pnemothorax in a xray
trachea shift, hyperinflation, flatened diaphragm on infected side, absence of lung marking/radiolucent, vertical line on the pleura
Signs of Pulmonary Edima with CHF
enlarged heart, butterfly or batwing, increase in CT ratio, increase in interstitial marking and enlarged pulmonary artery
signs of adealectases
fisherlines, narrowing of the rib cage, elevated hemodypharm, medistine trachea deviation toward affected side, plate like or wedge like density
signs of emphasima
radiolucent, increase in ap diameter, blebs or bulla, depressed or flattened diaphragm, pengalim heart (shifted towaard the midline) wideing off the intercostal spaces
signs of pleural infusion
blunting of the clostrafrenic angle, radiopaque, mediastinal trachea shift, partial or complete obscuring of the hemadiagphram, meniscus sign
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