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chemistry #5

covalent bond

ie. molecular compounds
1.Covalent bonds form between similar or identical atoms
(most often 2 nonmetals)
2. join nonmetallic atoms together to form molecules. The 2 nuclei attracted the same shared electrons - orbitals from the 2 atoms overlap.

covalent bond basic structure unit


molecular compound form

1. Molecular compounds may be solid (sugar), liquid (water), or gas (oxygen).
2. If soluble in water, usually produces a no conducting solution.
Exception : acids

covalent properties (4)

1. Low melting point
2. Low boiling point
3. Does not conduct electricity
4. Can form large macromolecules in solid form, called covalent networks (VERY high melting points)

ionic bonds

1. Ionic bonds form between atoms of dissimilar elements (metal&nonmetal)
2. Electrons transfer is involved
3. Do not contain discrete molecules - alternating (+)&(-) ions.

ionic compound form

1. solid at room temperature
2. If soluble in water, forms a solution that conducts electricity due to the presence of ions (charged particles) in the solution

bonding electrons

the valence electrons are shared

nonbonding electrons

the pairs of valence electrons are not shared

octet rule

The number of covalent bonds formed by a nonmetallic
element is directly correlated with the number of electrons
it must share in order to obtain an octet of electrons.
ex. Ex: Fluorine - F - 7 valence electrons (VIIA).
It needs only one electron to achieve the octet.

single bonds

each atom contributes one electron

double bonds

each atom contributes two electrons

triple bonds

each atom contributes three electrons

coordinate covalent bonds

both electrons shared comes from one of the two atoms
Note: Atoms participating in coordinate covalent bonds generally do not form their normal number of covalent bonds.

bonds (single, double, triple) formed depends on

the vacancies in the valence electron shell

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