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Terms in this set (26)
cooling and hardening
processes that change magma or lava into igneous rock.
compaction and cementation
the processed by which sediments are pressed together, crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into sedimentary rock.
Process by which, in a fluid being heated, the warmer part of the mass will rise and the cooler portions will sink.
The movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature that transfers thermal energy from one part of the fluid to another and forms a current. ex. in the upper mantle
convergent plate boundary
Plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.
divergent plate boundary
Plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
The movement of rock and sediment from one place to another by wind, water, or ice.
A break or crack in the Earth's lithosphere along which rocks move.
heat and pressure
The two processes that occur in the upper mantle that change rocks into metamorphic rock, without melting the rock completely.
A rock type formed from the cooling and hardening of magma or lava. Ex. granite, gabbro, basalt, obsidian
Features that make up the earth's surface. ex. Valleys, mountains, plains, trenches, mid-ocean ridges, canyons
Rock changed by heat and pressure to form another rock. Ex. marble, schist, gneiss, slate
A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition. ex. quartz, garnet, graphite.
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle. Earth's plates meet at different types of boundaries, including convergent, divergent, and transform.
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another. metamorphic> Igneous> sedimentary >and so on
Particles created by the erosion and weathering of rock. Examples: sand, soil, gravel
Rock formed from the cementation and compaction of sediment. Examples: sandstone, limestone, shale, conglomerate
transform plate boundary
Plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
The breaking down of rock at or near Earth's surface. Weathering can be mechanical or physical. ex. wind, water, ice, animals and chemicals can break down rock
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
Earth's thickest layer, just below the crust, made of hot rock that has plasticity.
Earth's outermost layer.
The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust that moves on top of the asthenosphere.
Large sections of the Earth's crust that move due to convection currents. ex. the South American Plate
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