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Reasons for War

1. Nationalism- pride in one's country (European Nationalists common language and cultures should stick together - encouraged unity but creates distrust) 2. Imperialism- Nations competing in the same region lead to war (Samoa, spheres of influence in China) 3. Militarism- Building strong armed forces to prepare for war (creates tension) 4. Rival Alliances- formed for protection a. Allies agreed to help each other in the event of war b. minor indecent could lead to war c. Triple Alliance-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy d. Triple Entente- Great Britain, France, Russia

What was the trigger for the Great War?

the assignation of Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia)

Years that the War occurred in


Triple Entente

Great Britain, France, Russia

Triple Alliance

Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary

Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (Turkish)

Allied Powers

Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia (later to drop out)

What was WW1 called at that time?

The Great War

Poison Gas

poison gas was introduced by Germans and was used by both sides

No Man's Land

Territory between rival Trenches, very dangerous

Trench Warfare

Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.

Machine Guns

These weapons fire a very fast stream of bullets for a long time (500-600 bullets/min)


Large armored vehicles

Big Bertha

Name given by Allies to German 420-mm artillery that could shoot a one-ton shell 9 mi.

Even though the US was neutral who did they trade with the most?

Allied Powers because the British were blockading Germany so the US couldn't trade with them.

immediate (impact of war)

economy boomed, trade imbalance favored the Allies


German Submarines

What did Germany use U-boats for?

going under water and sinking ships that went into the British harbor.

The Lusitania

May 7, 1915; US is mad and threatens to join the Allied powers (Germany organizes the Sussex pledge)

Sussex Pledge

Germany says that they will warn neutral ships before they launch a torpedo

What makes the US think about entering the war?

1. Germany resumes submarine warfare (u-boats sink all ships including some US ships and Wilson is mad) 2. Zimmerman Telegram- Germany send a telegram to Mexico saying that if they help Germany, that they will give them New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona (it was intercepted by Britain before it got to Mexico) 3. Russian Revolution- ????

Wilson's declaration of War

told the Americans that entering the war was not only noble but just

The Draft

Selective Service Act- white men 21-30 names into basket and were drawn out (who ever gets picked goes) later African Americans were in all black troops with white leaders

Firsts in the Military

A. military authority and discipline B. left their farms and villages C. regular baths and meals D. indoor plumbing E. 25% illiterate- army becomes educator

Public Education reforms

A. longer school day B. mandatory attendance C. raised teacher training standards

Supplying the Allies

British troops warn out, American troops fresh and eager. French troops refused to fight. British running out of people and people starving.

Russian Withdraw

November 1917; Bolsheviks overthrew the czar and Russia dropped out to focus on the revolution

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Germany Gains Poland, Ukraine, and iron ore deposits. Moves troops to the western front.

American Expeditionary Force

Americans fighting in Europe led by Pershing

Arrived in? Started fighting in?

June 1917; June 1918

What helped the Allied Powers win the war?

American troops fresh and eager helped and Germany had no food or supplies so they had to quit

The end of the Great War

Armistice day; 11th day of the 11 month on the 11 hour, 1918

Liberty Bonds

lending money to the government to pay for the war


stepped into male jobs but earned less; changes stereotypes of "women's work"; did not last after the war

Anti-German Feelings

suspicion and intolerance, loyalty questioned, mobs attacked, changed names

Ethnic tensions

migrations from the south to north Mexican Americans and African Americans- escape poverty and discrimination

Silencing protest

crime to criticize the government or interfere with the war


managing government through departments run by officials

The Food Administration

"wheatless mondays" "meatless tuesdays" "porkless thursdays"- people save the food that there giving up on that day and send it to the soldiers

War industries Board

told factories what to produce (divided up limited resources)

War Labor Board

settled disputes over working hours and wages tried to prevent strikes

Purpose (commission on Public Administration

the war represented a battle for democracy and freedom

effects of the war

Europe lay in runes, France Germany Russia and Austria Hungary each lost between 1-2 million deaths, millions more wounded, 9 million ppl dead world wide, millions homeless and starving, new nations struggled to form from old empires

14 points

Wilson goes to Europe to discuss his peace plan- no one country should have to pay (other leaders did not agree)

The Big 4 (Allie winners)

Wilson- US, Orlando- Italy, George- Britain, and Clemenceau -France

Treaty of Versailles

most famous WW1 treaty; treaty between Germany and the allied powers in which Germany accepted full responsibility for the war and agreed to pay reparation; the US did not ratify the treaty.

Wilson's accomplishments

many new countries, league of nations

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