World War 1 Test

Reasons for War
1. Nationalism- pride in one's country (European Nationalists common language and cultures should stick together - encouraged unity but creates distrust) 2. Imperialism- Nations competing in the same region lead to war (Samoa, spheres of influence in China) 3. Militarism- Building strong armed forces to prepare for war (creates tension) 4. Rival Alliances- formed for protection a. Allies agreed to help each other in the event of war b. minor indecent could lead to war c. Triple Alliance-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy d. Triple Entente- Great Britain, France, Russia
What was the trigger for the Great War?
the assignation of Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia)
Years that the War occurred in
Triple Entente
Great Britain, France, Russia
Triple Alliance
Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (Turkish)
Allied Powers
Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia (later to drop out)
What was WW1 called at that time?
The Great War
Poison Gas
poison gas was introduced by Germans and was used by both sides
No Man's Land
Territory between rival Trenches, very dangerous
Trench Warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Machine Guns
These weapons fire a very fast stream of bullets for a long time (500-600 bullets/min)
Large armored vehicles
Big Bertha
Name given by Allies to German 420-mm artillery that could shoot a one-ton shell 9 mi.
Even though the US was neutral who did they trade with the most?
Allied Powers because the British were blockading Germany so the US couldn't trade with them.
immediate (impact of war)
economy boomed, trade imbalance favored the Allies
German Submarines
What did Germany use U-boats for?
going under water and sinking ships that went into the British harbor.
The Lusitania
May 7, 1915; US is mad and threatens to join the Allied powers (Germany organizes the Sussex pledge)
Sussex Pledge
Germany says that they will warn neutral ships before they launch a torpedo
What makes the US think about entering the war?
1. Germany resumes submarine warfare (u-boats sink all ships including some US ships and Wilson is mad) 2. Zimmerman Telegram- Germany send a telegram to Mexico saying that if they help Germany, that they will give them New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona (it was intercepted by Britain before it got to Mexico) 3. Russian Revolution- ????
Wilson's declaration of War
told the Americans that entering the war was not only noble but just
The Draft
Selective Service Act- white men 21-30 names into basket and were drawn out (who ever gets picked goes) later African Americans were in all black troops with white leaders
Firsts in the Military
A. military authority and discipline B. left their farms and villages C. regular baths and meals D. indoor plumbing E. 25% illiterate- army becomes educator
Public Education reforms
A. longer school day B. mandatory attendance C. raised teacher training standards
Supplying the Allies
British troops warn out, American troops fresh and eager. French troops refused to fight. British running out of people and people starving.
Russian Withdraw
November 1917; Bolsheviks overthrew the czar and Russia dropped out to focus on the revolution
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Germany Gains Poland, Ukraine, and iron ore deposits. Moves troops to the western front.
American Expeditionary Force
Americans fighting in Europe led by Pershing
Arrived in? Started fighting in?
June 1917; June 1918
What helped the Allied Powers win the war?
American troops fresh and eager helped and Germany had no food or supplies so they had to quit
The end of the Great War
Armistice day; 11th day of the 11 month on the 11 hour, 1918
Liberty Bonds
lending money to the government to pay for the war
stepped into male jobs but earned less; changes stereotypes of "women's work"; did not last after the war
Anti-German Feelings
suspicion and intolerance, loyalty questioned, mobs attacked, changed names
Ethnic tensions
migrations from the south to north Mexican Americans and African Americans- escape poverty and discrimination
Silencing protest
crime to criticize the government or interfere with the war
managing government through departments run by officials
The Food Administration
"wheatless mondays" "meatless tuesdays" "porkless thursdays"- people save the food that there giving up on that day and send it to the soldiers
War industries Board
told factories what to produce (divided up limited resources)
War Labor Board
settled disputes over working hours and wages tried to prevent strikes
Purpose (commission on Public Administration
the war represented a battle for democracy and freedom
effects of the war
Europe lay in runes, France Germany Russia and Austria Hungary each lost between 1-2 million deaths, millions more wounded, 9 million ppl dead world wide, millions homeless and starving, new nations struggled to form from old empires
14 points
Wilson goes to Europe to discuss his peace plan- no one country should have to pay (other leaders did not agree)
The Big 4 (Allie winners)
Wilson- US, Orlando- Italy, George- Britain, and Clemenceau -France
Treaty of Versailles
most famous WW1 treaty; treaty between Germany and the allied powers in which Germany accepted full responsibility for the war and agreed to pay reparation; the US did not ratify the treaty.
Wilson's accomplishments
many new countries, league of nations