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Chapter 5 Properties of Cells - Weekend 2
Terms in this set (51)
What is the basic functional unit of the CNS?
neuron (sends and receives signals)
What are all the componets of a neuron? (5)
soma (cell body)
dendrites (main input sites)
axon (reaches target cells)
neurons receive information through ______, process it in the ______ and generate output through the _________
soma (cell body)
the axon extends off the cell body in an area called the _________
the ________ is the space between the axon and the next neuron it is communicating with
microtubules carry NTs towards the terminal (slow process)
anterograde (away from cell body)
microtubules carry NTs away from the terminal to the soma
retrograde (back to cell body)
Package transmitters and transports them
SSRIs act by ________ the retrograde of serotonin (NT) from the synaptic cleft
SSRI = selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor - inhibits this retrograde process so that when there is extra serotonin it doesn't pick it up and repacked it under the assumption that someone needs extra serotonin to boost their mood. Now acting as a neuro modulator (instead of a neuro transmitter) (have more/longing effect on system). Left at the post synaptic membrane.
________ cells have two processes coming off of the cell body - an axon and a dendrite
_________ cells carry the general sensory modalities (pain, temperature, touch, pressure and proprioception) into the CNS.
Their cell bodies are always located in the PNS in a ganglion.
They have 2 long axons and no true dendrites
______ cells have multiple processes off of the cell body
They have a single axon and multiple dendrites.
They are also found in the motor pathways of the PNS and their cell bodies are located in ganglion.
_______ channel are always open, free flowing across membrane
______ channel only open if certain type of sensation comes along
ex) temperature/pressure on a finger
modality gated channel
________channel is when a certain neurotransmitter is released, that is the key, to open the channel, only that specific NT will work for that process
ligand (AKA NT) gated channel
open when specific electrochemical charge is reached (action potential), if we hit certain threshold the channel will open
example muscle contraction
voltage gated channel
Electrical Potentials across the cell membrane - For information to be transmitted, there must be a a change in electrical charge across the cell membrane (called an electrical potential) so an action potential can occur. That's the message being sent down the axon
resting membrane potential
-70mV inside the cell
0 is outside the cell
the difference in charge across the membrane results from the differences in the distribution of _______ ions and _______ ions across the membrane
positive and negative
the ions responsible for the potential outside the cell are ______ and ______
sodium (NA+) and chloride (CL-)
the ions responsible for the potential inside the cell are ______ and ______
Potassium (K+) and organic (A-)
Because of the constantly open (non-gated) channels in the membrane--- _____ constantly leaks into the cell and _______ leaks out
_____ can usually freely cross the membrane and doesn't need to be pumped
_______ is where the energy comes from to keep the pump going
Normally ____ potassium ions are carried in and _____ sodium ions are carried out in each cycle
if the membrane potential becomes more negative -70, -75, -80; the cell becomes inhibitory
whenever the -70mv becomes more positive, -68, -50, -20; the cell becomes facilitory
gradual, longer lasting changes in membrane potential.
FYI: The Action Poetential
-70 is resting, sodium potassium pump going on to help keep us there.
-55 is the threshold - if we get enough little local potentials at -55, the key time that the voltage gated channel all sodium channels open at same time and flood inside the cell and does the action potential
+35 - voltage gated are going to shut the doors and they close the sodium channels so that this starts to go down. And when it goes down, for every single action potential, it goes slightly below (hyperpolarizes) a little bit lower than it first started at -75; but then the sodium potassium channels levels it back out to -70.
Depolarization = -70 to +35
Hyperpolarization = +35 to -75 (lowest level)
The action potential occurs at each node of ranvier.
The AP jumps from node to node
The speed of the AP is affected by: _____ _____ ____ (3)
2) larger diameter axons
3) the number of synapses in pathway
more myelin on the axon means the _____ the message will be sent
the larger the diameter of the axon the ______ the message will be sent
the more synapses the ______ the message will be sent
will block sodium gated channels, so they cant open to send the pain message
temporally deadens the acetylcholine on the muscles receptors, so the muscle cant receive the message
is a substance of proteins and fats that surround an axon, insulating it and supporting the flow of the action potential.
are gaps in the myelin where sodium channels can open and continuously generate more action potentials
nodes of ranvier
Supporting cells of the nervous system
what are the three CNS types of glia?
what is the type of neuroglia in the PNS?
What type of glia gives the structural support to the CNS?
Function of this type of glia is: they are the blood brain barrier, they facilitate oxygen and nutrients from the blood into the brain; can contribute to signaling;
primary role of this glia is to clean things up in CNS; eat up dead material (phagocytic) when trauma or disease needs to be removed.
primary role of this glia is to produce and maintain the myelin sheaths in the CNS
this is a response of microglia and astrocytes to CNS infection, disease and injury.
What is the myelin called in the PNS?
They produce and form the myelin of peripheral nerves
What is a demyelination disorder of the PNS?
Hint: can be caused by neuropathies, autoimmune or metabolic disorders, viruses, trauma and toxic chemicals
What is a demyelination disorder of the CNS?
Hint: Destroyed oligodendrocytes in brain or spinal cord produce areas of demyelination, called plaques
MS (multiple sclerosis)
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