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90 terms

Western Civilization

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The "barbarians" who overran the Roman Empire in the West were actually Germanic tribes, who were
made up of a relatively small number of people—the largest tribe had about 100,000 people.
"One God, one empire, one religion" was the stated policy of
the Byzantine emperor Justinian.
Which place was NOT, at least partially, included in Charlemagne's kingdom?
Modern England (Modern Italy, Modern Switzerland, and Modern France were part of his kingdom).
Islamic religion incorporated elements from all of the following traditions EXCEPT
Indian (Includes: Greek, Persian, and Jewish).
Which of the following is the best summary of the relationship between the Byzantine Empire and the Avars, Slavs, and Bulgars?
As the Avars, Slavs, and Bulgars fought amongst themselves, they first threatened the Byzantine empire, and later were Christianized through the work of Byzantine missionaries
The city of Cordoba, Spain achieved greatness
as a multicultural hub of merchandise and ideas, while serving as the capital of Muslim Spain.
According to the doctrine of apostolic primacy,
the popes in Rome had a unique role in the church because they were the direct successors of the apostle Peter.
Carolingian miniscule was
a relatively easy-to-read style of handwriting developed during Charlemagne's reign.
Which of the following is NOT a true statement about feudalism?
It prevented warlords from undermining the authority of the king.
The advantages of the three-field system over earlier systems of cultivation include all of the following EXCEPT
It reduced the need for agricultural labor. (Advantages include: Crop yields increased, crop cycles could correlate better with the seasons and more fields were under cultivation at any given time, so harvests were larger.
According to the text, what happened to the culture of the barbarians who overran the Western empire?
Roman culture—in language, religion, law, and government—generally prevailed over barbarian culture.
The Byzantine Empire influenced Western civilization in all of the following ways EXCEPT
Its military organization and discipline was the foundation for medieval European armies. (The B.E. was influenced by a nurtured a form of Christianity, it provided a model of a centralized bureaucratic state and it slowed the spread of Islam.
Which group did NOT threaten Byzantine autonomy?
Egyptian monks.
Over time, the dominant group within Islam has been the
Sunnis.
Accomplishments of medieval Islamic civilizations included all of the following EXCEPT
Equal rights for women. (Accomplishments did include: translations of the works of ancient Greek philosophers, agricultural innovations, and sophisticated medical techniques.
What of the following statements is NOT true regarding Benedictine monasticism?
It grew out of Irish monasticism. (These statements are true: Benedict's Rule for Monasteries specified details including how monks should sleep, Benedictines came to hold political and economic power, and Benedictine monks performed manual labor, as well as spiritual devotion.
The most long-lasting effect of the iconoclasm controversy was
weakened ties between the Byzantine Empire and the papacy.
Charlemagne's basic problem with his empire was
fragmentation.
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding Vikings?
Vikings converted the English to Christianity. (The Vikings did: Viking is another name for the Normans, or North-men, Vikings lived in a cultural world filled with mythical gods and spirits, and Ninth-century Vikings created a trading post in York, in northern England.)
How did feudalism change over time?
The acquisition of property gradually became more important than pledges of loyalty and service.
At the time of the Germanic migrations, the Western Roman Empire had been weakened by factors including famine, pestilence, and overtaxation.
True.
Cyril and Methodius were the creators of Carolingian miniature.
False.
The ulema began as followers of Muhammad in the prophet's lifetime, and became a position passed down from father to son.
False.
Pope Leo I declared himself pontifex maximus, reflecting increased papal power over other bishops
True.
Alcuin of York was a renowned scholar who was appointed director of Charlemagne's school at Aachen.
True.
Capitals of the Roman Empire in the West included, in chronological order,
Rome, Milan, Ravenna.
In the fifth century, Rome was
Sacked three times in this chronological order: by the Visigoths (under Alaric), the Huns (under Attila), and the Vandals.
The history of the Byzantine Empire is typically divided into three periods, the first of which begins with the construction of Constantinople in 324, and the third of which ends with
the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Which of the following is NOT an accomplishment of Justinian?
Replacing powerful individual governors with more easily managed, 200-member councils, or Decurions.
According to this text, when did the Byzantine Empire become more oriented to the East than to Rome and the West?
Under Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641)
The basic responsibilities of Muslims include all of the following EXCEPT
Use any measure to recruit new converts to Islam. (The responsibilities do include: Wash and pray, facing Mecca, five times daily, support the poor and needy, and abstain from pork and alcohol.
Muhammad's flight to Medina in 622 C.E. is called the
Hegira.
Which group believes that the legitimate leadership of Islam can only come from the house of Ali?
Shi'a.
What is the best summary of the authors' view of the Christian church in the fifth through seventh centuries?
Though spiritually weak, the church filled many of the administrative and cultural gaps left by the fall of the Roman Empire in the West.
Why did monasticism appeal to Christians?
It offered a way to practice a pure form of Christianity.
Areas of disagreement between Eastern and Western Christianity include all of the following EXCEPT
whether bishops could marry. (Areas of disagreement include: Whether Christ was simply immortal, or both eternal and mortal, the religious role of the leader of the state, and the veneration of images.
All of these statements about the Merovingians are correct EXCEPT
They relied on the support of the aristocracy. (True statements of Merovingians: They ruled a kingdom within ancient Gaul, they were the first Frankish dynasty, founded by Clovis, and they created the office of "count" to assist with local administration.
Which of the following is the best summary of the relationship between Charlemagne and the church?
After Charlemagne restored Leo III to the papacy, the pope attempted to gain some leverage over Charlemagne by crowning him emperor in 800, but Charlemagne retained the upper hand.
How did the Carolingian Kingdom end?
It was fragmented among Charlemagne's grandsons.
Leading historians believe that feudal government originated in
the Merovingian custom of unattached freemen putting themselves in the service of more powerful freemen, who in return promised protection.
Which is the best summary of the authors' attitudes toward vassalage and fiefs?
They were logical, and perhaps necessary, devices to create temporary stability, but they eventually undermined royal authority through fragmentation.
The population of Constantinople under Justinian was probably around 350,000.
True.
The downside of Justinian's reconquest was that the costly campaigns bankrupted his successors.
True.
In Islam, men and women follow the same basic procedure to obtain a divorce.
False.
Anthony of Egypt established the form of monasticism that became most popular in the West.
False.
The High Middle Ages were arguably more creative than the Renaissance and Reformation in regard to which field?
Western institutional development
During the course of his rule, Emperor Otto I shifted his attention from Germany to
Italy
The immediate reason for the First Crusade was
Turkish pressure on the Byzantine Empire
When the great Muslim military and political leader Saladin re-captured Jerusalem from the armies of the Third Crusade,
He allowed any Frank who paid a ransom to leave, unharmed
According to the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation
When priests consecrate bread and wine during the Eucharist, those substances are truly (not symbolically) transformed into the body and blood of Christ
At the Battle of Hastings in 1066,
The Normans defeated the Anglo-Saxons, clearing the way for William the Conqueror to be crowned king of England
The Magna Carta, or "Great Charter," of 1215
Created a framework for balancing the preservation and rights of the privileged class against those of the monarchy
French society and culture first emerged as a model for Europe
During the reign of Louis IX (r. 1226-1270)
All of the following statements about the German emperor Frederick II are true EXCEPT
He created a strong administrative framework for a united Germany (The following are true: He was excommunicated by the pope four times, he once began a crusade, at the pope's request, but then refused to finish it, he was raised in Sicily)
"Gothic" refers to
The art and architecture that evolved from Romanesque styles
Which is the best summary of the life and accomplishments of Otto I of Germany?
After invading Italy and defeating Hungarians, Otto I was crowned emperor by Pope John; when Pope John later turned against him, Otto I had the pope deposed
Which of the following is NOT true about the monastery at Cluny?
It rejected papal authority, claiming that each monastery was self-governing (The following are true: It was devoted to strict observance of Benedict's Rule for Monasteries, One of its abbots was Saint Odo, It became a center of reform)
The showdown between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV over the appointment of clergy is called the
Investiture struggle
The authors state that, politically and religiously, the first three Crusades were a
Failure
All of the following are true of the Franciscans and Dominicans EXCEPT
They stayed confined to monasteries (The following are true:They emerged under Pope Innocent III, They were both sanctioned by the Pope, Their members were called friars)
Which of the following was William the Conqueror responsible for?
William the Conqueror made the English government more efficient
William the Conqueror maintained the Anglo-Saxon tradition of consulting with the nobility
William the Conqueror made every landholder his vassal
All of these options are correct
King John was forced to recognize the Magna Carta in 1215 due to factors EXCEPT
The Black Death (He was forced to recognize: The humiliating concessions he made to the pope after he had been excommunicated, High taxes, The defeat of his army by the French at Bouvines in 1214)
Which of the following is NOT true about French king Louis IX?
He supported the German Hohenstaufens in their conflicts with the pope
The Hohenstaufen dynasty can best be described as
Characterized by conflict, especially between the ruler and the pope
Romanesque churches
Feature rounded arches and thick stone walls
Otto I appointed clergymen as princes and agents of the king, because they could not form families.
True.
The Crusades were directed only against Muslims in the Holy Land.
False.
Henry II added a portion of France to the English Empire.
True.
Only the wealthy could go on a Medieval pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
False.
Distinctive features of Gothic architecture include pointed arches and high ceilings
True.
The unification of the German provinces was begun by
Henry I
Otto I's victory over the Hungarians in 955 is significant for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
It brought Italy under German control (It is significant because: It earned Otto the title of "The Great", It defined the boundaries of Western Europe, It secured German borders from barbarian) attacks
The Peace of God was
An attempt to make society less violent
The investiture struggle was a conflict
Between popes and royalty over whether secular rulers could appoint church officials; it was resolved by the Concordat of Worms in 1122
The Westerners' goal in the First Crusade was to
Rescue Jerusalem from Islam
The Knights Templar
Provided protection to Western pilgrims traveling to and from the Holy Land
Which of the following statements is NOT true about Pope Innocent III?
He launched the First Crusade
Which of the following is true of the Cathars?
They were a group that opposed human procreation
Which of the following was an African saint?
St. Maurice
What was unique about members of the Franciscan and Dominican orders?
They were not cloistered, but interacted with society and earned their living by begging or working
Who were people who participated in the Third Orders?
Laypeople who pursued monastic ideals without joining the clergy
The Domesday Book
Cataloged every property in William the Conqueror's realm
Which of the following is NOT true about French king Louis VII?
His court at Poitiers was a famous center for the literature of courtly love
King John's attitude toward the Magna Carta can best be described as
Grudging recognition
According to the text, which is the best summary of Louis IX of France?
He was a good person, but a foolishly naïve ruler
The strongest opposition to the imperial aspirations of Frederick I came from the
Italian popes
According to the text, who is to blame for Germany's relatively late national unification?
Frederick II
The roots of both the separation of church and state, and the celibacy of the Catholic clergy, can be found in the Cluny reform movement.
True.
Pope Urban II promised Christian Crusaders remission of their unrepented sins.
True.
The term Gothic implies barbaric.
True.