Org B Final Exam
Terms in this set (132)
Be able to define the difference between internal and external perspective
internal perspective looks at a worker's mind to understand their behavior, while external perspective focuses on outside factors to understand a worker's behavior
looks at worker's minds to understand behavior
focuses on factors outside teh person to understand behavior
a great variety of organizations that play an important role in the economy
this organization includes the production of basic materials and the productiosn of finished products and electronic equipment
this organization includes transportation, financial services, insurance, and retail sales
this organization provides essentential infrastructure
this organization is important to our collective well-being because they meet needs that other sectors do not address
a cultural orientation in which people belong to loose frameworks and their primary concern is for themselves and their families
a cultural orientation in which individuals belong to tightly knit social frameworks and depend strongly on extended families or clans
What is an example of individualism?
North American and European cultures because managers in Great Britatin and the Netherlands they emphasize and encourage individual achievement
What is an example of collectivist?
In countries such as Israli Kibbutzim and Japan, people view group loyalty and unity as paramount
How do societies judge each other with low or high power distance?
Low: people believe in minimizing inequality
High: bosses are afforded more authority, titles are used and formality is the rule
What is an example of high and low power distance?
High: India, Venezuela and Mexico
Low: Denmark and Australia
an ethical theory that emphasizes the character of the act itself rather than its effects
an ethical theory that emphasizes the consequences or results of behavior
an ethical theory that emphasizes the character, personal virtues and intent of the indvidual
What is an example of a person with low self-efficacy?
employees often feel ineffective at work and may express doubts about performaning new tasks well
What is an example of a person with high self-efficacy?
employees with high self-efficacy have more confidence in their job-related abilities and other personal resources that help them function effectively on the job
How do individuals react with high self-esteem?
they have positive feelings about themselves, perceive themselves to have strenghts as well as weakensses and believe their strenghts are more important than their weakness
How do individuals view themselves with low self-esteem?
They view themselves very negatively
gather information through the five senses and focusing on what actually exists
gathering information through a "sixth sense" and focusing on what could be
preferring to explore many alternatives with flexibility and spontaneity
making decisions in a personal, value-oriented way
What are the five barriers to social perception?
1. selective perception
3. first impressions
5. self-fulfilling prophecies
tendency to prefer information that supports our viewpoints
a generalization about a group of people
occur when we observe a very brief bit of a person's behavior in our first encounter and infrer this behavior reflects what the person is really like
interfere with social perception in that our expectations effect the way we interact with others such that we provoke the very response we expect
causes inaccurate perceptions of others
How are attitudes formed through direct experience?
they are stronger, held more confidently, and more resistant to change because they personal experienced that event
organizational commitment based on an individual's perceived obligation to remain with an organization
organizational commitment based on the fact that an individual cannot afford to leave
What are the 4 instrumental values as identified by Milton Rokeach?
honesty, ambition, self-sufficiency, and courage
What are the higher needs of Maslow's hiearchy?
love (social) needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs
What are the motivational factors related to satisfaction?
- recognition of achievement
- work itself
a healthy normal stress that leads to invest in strenghts, find meaning in work, display courage and principled action, and draw on positive emotions at work
negative response such as frustration or fear which leads to unhelathy and unproductive results
Adam's theory of inequality suggests that people are motivated when they:
find themselves in situations of inequity or unfairness
modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors
modifying behavior by pairing a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit an unconditioned response
a strategy to cultivate desirable behavior by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences
a strategy to discourage undesirable behavior by either bestowing negative consequences or withholding positive consequences
a strategy to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it
a goal setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers
management by objectives
Within performance appraisal's what defines validity?
a poorly defined task performance causing invalidity
What is an example of person-role conflict?
If a distributer tells an organic farmer to cut costs by using a synthetic pesticide, the famer may find that his personal beliefs are compromised by his role as a producer
What is an example of interrole conflict?
The employee with a major sales presentation due on Monday and a sick child at home Sunday night is likely to experience this
What is an example of intrarole conflict?
The manager who presses employee for both very fast and high-quality work may be viewed at some point as creating a conflict for employees
The manager who presses employee for both very fast and high-quality work may be viewed at some point as creating a conflict for employees
this is caused by opposing expectations related to a single role
this occurs when employees are expected to behave in ways that violate personal values
a way of managing stressful events by changing them into less subjectively stressful events
the alternative to transformation coping characterize by a passive avoidance of events and decreased interaction with the environment
an organizational philoosophy according to which people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain
preventative stress management
the stage in preventive stress management designed to reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress
the stage in preventive stress management designed to alter or modify the individual's or the organization's response to a demand or stressor
the stage in preventive stress management designed to heal individual or orgnaizational symptoms of distress and strain
What is the role negotiation process?
1. definition of a focal role wihtin the organizational context
2. negotiation of integrated role expectation follows
3. points of confusion and conflict become opportunities for clarification and resolution
4. a clear, well-defined focal role with which the incumbent and orgnaizational members are all comfortable
________ is the mastery of abilities essential to functioning in organizations.
What are the risks created by changing the demographic trends that present organizations with a culturally diverse workforce?
- Resistance to change
- Lack of cohesiveness
- Communication problems
- Interpersonal conflicts
- Slower decision making
What is the difference between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior?
OCB: behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty
WDB: causes some harm to the organizational function; voluntary work that is not benefiting the company
How do you use communication mediums and richness of messages effectively?
Since messages are conveyed through a medium (such as telephone or face-to-face discussion) they differ in richness according to the ability of that medium to transmit meaning to a receiver
What is defensive communication at work?
messages that are aggressive, malevolent, passive, or withdrawn
the study of an individual's perception and use of space
the art of seating people in certain positions according to their purpose in communication
the study of body movement and posture
What is the difference between proxemics and kinesics?
Proxemics is the study of an individual's perception while kinesics is the study of body movement
What are Tuckman's 5 stages in his model of group development?
What stage is: team members are unclear about individual roles and responsibilities and tend to rely heavily on the leader to answer questions about the team's purpose, objectives, and external relationships?
What stage is: A period of considerable conflict as power struggles, cliques, and factions within the group begin to surface
What stage is: During this period that roles and responsibilities become clear and accepted
What stage is: becoming more strategically aware of its mission and purpose
What stage is: task is completed, everyone on the team can move on to new and different things
_________ are benchmarks against which team members are evaluated by other team members.
What is upper echelon theory?
a top-level executive team in an organization
What are the characteristics of an upper echelon theory?
Ability to exert power and influence throughout the entire organization makes the top management team a key to the organization's success
In what type of groups do all members share similar backgrounds?
the tendency to continue to support a failing course of action
escalation of commitment
___________ is a process influenced by individuals and organizational factors that results in the production of novel and useful ideas, products or both.
A positive force that occurs in groups when group members are simulated to produce new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group
What are the 3 conditions that encourage group think?
1. high cohesiveness
2. having to make a highly consequential decision
3. time constraints
How would someone use reward power?
salary increase, bonuses and promotions
How would someone use coercive power?
to force the person to do it, often with threats of punishment
How would you use legitimate power?
Just because a manager thinks he has the right to influence his employees doesn't mean that he will have legitimate power in their eyes
What are the traits and symptoms of powerlessness?
* overly close supervision
*inflexible adherence to the rules
*tendency to do the job themselves rather than training their employees to do it
~ characteristics of no power:
* can't intercede for someone in trouble
* can't get placement for favored employees
* no access to early information
person uses demands, threats, or intimidation to convince you to comply with a request or to support a proposal
Pressure: "If you don't do this, you're fired. You have until 5:00 to change your mind, or I'm going without you"
The person seeks to persuade you that the request is approved by higher management or appeals to higher management for assistance in gaining your compliance with the request
Upward Appeals: "I'm reporting you to my boss. My boss supports this idea"
The person makes an explicit or implicit promise that you will receive rewards or tangible benefits if you comply with a request or support a proposal or reminds you of a prior favor to be reciprocated.
Exchange: "You owe me a favor. I'll take you to lunch if you'll support me on this."
The person seeks the aid of others to persuade you to do something or uses the support of others as an argument for you to agree also.
Coalition: All the other supervisors agree with me. I'll ask you in front of the whole committee"
The person seeks to get you in a good mood or to think favorably of him or her before asking you to do something
Ingratiation: "Only you can do this job right. I can always count on you, so I have another request"
The person uses logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade you that a proposal or request is viable and likely to result in the attainment of task objectives
Rational persuasion: "This new procedure will save us $150,000 in overhead. It makes sense to hire John; he has the most experience.
The person makes an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideals or by increasing your confidence that you can do it
Inspirational appeals: "Being environmentally conscious is the right thing. Getting that account will be tough, but I know you can do it"
The person seeks your participation in the making a decision or planning how to implement a proposed policy, strategy, or change.
Consultation: "This new attendance plan is controversial. How can we make it more acceptable? What do you think we can do to make our workers less fearful of the new robots on the production line?
What is the first step employees should take in managing their relationship with their boss?
Try and understand as much as you can about your boss
leader behavior aimed at defining and organizing work relationships and roles, as well as establishing clear patterns of organization, communication, and ways of getting things done
leader behavior aimed at nurturing friendly, warm working relationships as well as encouraging mutual trust and interpersonal respect within the work unit
the theory assumes that leaders adapt their behavior and style to fit the characteristics of the followers and the environment in which they work
How is a leader chosen in path-goal theory?
the leader must consider both the followers and the work environment
____________ refers to the willingness to be vulnerable to the actions of another
What is the most disruptive follower?
What is the least disruptive follower?
What is the difference between displacement and fixation in the context of defense mechanisms?
Displacement: redirects to someone not involved
Fixation: keeps up behavior even though it won't be solved
What are the 3 compromise mechanisms?
a compromise mechanism in which an individual attempts to make up for a negative situation by devoting himself or herself to another pursuit with increased vigor
a compromise mechanism whereby an individual patterns his or her behavior after another's
a compromise mechanism characterized by trying to justify one's behavior by constructing bogus reasons for it
What are the following ineffective technique definitions?
- due process:
- administrative orbiting:
- character assassination:
- Nonaction: doing nothing in hopes that a conflict will disappear
- Due process nonaction: a procedure set up to address conflicts that is so costly, time-consuming, or personally risky that no one will use it
- Secrecy: attempting to hide a conflict or an issue that has the potential to create conflict
- Administrative orbiting: delaying action on a conflict by buying time
-Character assassination: an attempt to label or discredit an opponent
Scientific management is an approach to work design that emphasizes _______________.
What is one problem with job enrichment strategy for work design?
it is based on an oversimplified motivational theory
What is flextime and what is it designed to do?
Flextime: An alternative work pattern that enables employees to set their own daily work schedules
Designed to ease traffic and commuting pressures
a centralized form of organization that emphasizes a small technical and support staff, strong centralization of decision making in the upper echelon, and a minimal middle level
a moderately decentralized form of organization that emphasizes support staff differentiated from the line operations of the organization, limited horizontal decentralization of decision making, and a well-defined hierarchy of authority
a decentralized form of organization that emphasizes the expertise of the professionals in the operating core of the organization
What is the difference between unit technology and mass technology?
- unit technology: small bath
mass technology: large batch
What is defined as anything outside the boundaries of an organization?
a pattern of basic assumptions that are considered valid and that are taught to new members as the way to perceive, think, and feel in the organization
organizational (corporate) culture
an examination of the behavior of organization member. When this behavior reflects the organization's value, it is called this
How do top management use personal enactment to coordinate employees?
it provides insight into the organization's values
Why are qualitative methods for organizational culture assessment (such as interviews and observations) valuable?
valuable because of their detail, descriptiveness, and uniqueness
Cultural change effort in an organization can be deemed successful if ________________.
The behavior is intrinsically motivated - that is on "automatic pilot"
What is an example of the following occupational choices?
- Realistic: include mechanic, restaurant server, and mechanical engineer
- Artistic: architect, voice coach, and interior designer
-Social: counselor, social worker, and member of the clergy
In the context of psychological contracts for social support what type would share information necessary for managing demands?
protection from stressors
Candidates who receive a realistic job preview tend to view the company in which way?
make a more effective job choice because they see the company in an honest way
Age discrimination in employment act prohibits?
cannot fire someone once they reach a certain age
What is the difference between phased retirement and bridge employment?
-phased retirement: still works at the same company until retirement
-bridge employment: leaves the company but works somewhere else until complete retirement
What are the disadvantages that internal change agents have in managing the change process in an organization?
May be associated with certain factions within the organization, be accused of favoritism, or be too close to the situation to have an objective view of what needs to be done
Identify the guidelines that should be followed by organizations to make survey feedback effective?
1. Employees must be assured that their responses to the questionnaire will be confidential and anonymous
2. Feedback should be reported in a group format
3. Employees must be able to trust that negative repercussions will not result from their responses
4. Employees should be informed of the purpose of the survey
___________ is an organization-wide intervention technique that involves joint goal setting between employees and managers
management by objectives (MBO)
Outdoor challenges can be used to do what?
Team building to encourage participants to practice leadership, communication, goal setting, conflict management and motivation
What focuses on helping employee's manage their stress?
promote health promotion programs
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