How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

50 terms

Final Greek Vocabulary

STUDY
PLAY
Peloponnesian Wars
Athens vs. Sparta; 5th Century BC
Athens
Most advanced city-state; fought Sparta in Peloponnesian Wars
Sparta
Most militaristic city-state; fought Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars
Epic
Long poem about heroes and/or gods
Fable
Short tale which teaches a lesson
Persian Wars
Persian Empire invades Greece;
490 and 480 BC
Hellenes
Name of the ancient Greeks for themselves
Lyceum
School founded by Aristotle;
modern: intermediate school
Academy
School founded by Plato;
modern: advanced (private) school
Gymnasium
School for students intermediate between elementary school and college
Parthenon
Athens' temple to Athena on the Acropolis in Athens
Marathon
26-mile race named for Greek victory over the Persians during the 1st Persian War in 490 BC (legend is that Pheidippides ran to Athens to announce victory, and dropped dead)
Thermopylae
480 BC; 2nd Persian War battle site; 300 Spartans held off gigantic Persian army, and died bravely and famously
Draconian
Harsh; named after Athenian lawmaker whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense
Myth
Traditional story about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society.
Salamis
480 BC; Naval battle; 2nd Persian War; Greeks win despite great odds
Platea
479 BC; 2nd Persian War land battle; outnumbered Greeks win!
Tragedy
A serious form of drama dealing with the downfall of a heroic or noble character to make a point or teach a lesson
Comedy
In ancient Greece, play that mocked people or social customs to make a point or teach a lesson
Persia
Empire in southern Asia created by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC
Peloponnesus
Southern peninsula of Greece; dominated by Sparta
Temple
Religious building; home of a god
Acropolis
"The" hill in the center of Athens
Democracy
Political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can vote or elect people to represent them
Peninsula
Body of land jutting into a lake or ocean, surrounded on three sides by water
Marble
Type of stone;
extensively used for statues and public buildings
Sculpture
Statue or work of art;
usually made from marble
Alphabet
Set of symbols (letters) that represent the sounds of a language
(Greeks added vowels to create world's first complete one)
City-state
City and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
Golden Age
A time period when a civilization is at its best;
a time of prosperity and cultural growth
Majority
More than half of the votes
Barbarian
Anyone who is not a member of your civilization
(OR, a wild and uncivilized person)
Agora
Central area in Greek cities;
used as a marketplace and as a meeting place
Polis
Greek term for a city-state
Export
Send trade goods out of a country
Import
Bring trade goods into a country
Olympics
Greek athletic competitions held every 4 years to celebrate the Gods
Citizen
Person who lives in a place and has voting rights
acropolis
large hill in a city; used as a fortress and/or religious site
Polytheism
belief in many gods
Aristocrat
upper class person; noble ("hoity toity")
Legislate
make laws
Monarchy
form of government with an all-powerful hereditary ruler (e.g., king, emperor)
Monarch
leader in a monarchy
Hereditary
passing from generation to generation, parent to child
odyssey
long, eventful, adventurous journey (derived from Homer's story of the voyage home of Odysseus after the Trojan War)
Oligarchy
system of government in which a small group of people holds power
Trade
exchange of goods; the buying and selling of goods and products
Trireme
ancient Greek warship having three tiers of oars on each side
Odyssey
Homer's epic tale of the return voyage of Odysseus from the Trojan War