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labor relations

relationship between organized labor and management (i their role as representative of business owners)

labor unions

Organizations that represent employees in negotiations with management.


Length of tme someone has worked for his or her current employe

work rules

Common element of labor contracts specifying such things as the tasks certain employees are required to do or forbidden to do

National Labor Relations Act

Legislation passed in 1935 that established labor relations policies and procedures for most sectors of private industry; commonly known as the Wagner Act

Labor-Management Relations Act

Legislation passed in 1947 that addressed many concerns raised by business owners and shifted the balance of power again; commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act

Labor-Management Reporting & Disclosure Act

Legislation passed in 1959 designed to ensure democratic processes and financial acocuntability within unions; commonly known as the Landrum-Griffith Act

union security

Measures that protect the union's right to represent workers

union shop

Unionized workplace in which employees are required to maintain union membership

right-to-work laws

State laws that prohibit union and agency shops


Local unions that represent employees in a specific geographic area or facility

national union

Nationwide organization composed of many local unions that represent employees in specific locations

authorization cards

Cards signed by employees to indicate interest in having a union represent them

certification election

Secret-ballot election overseen by the NLRB to determine whether a union gains the right to represent a group of employees


Employees vote to take away a union's right to represent them

collective bargaining

Negotiation between union and management negotiators to forge the human resources policies that will apply to all employees covered by cotract

collective bargaining agreements (CBAs)

Contracts that result from collective bargaining


Use of an impartial third party to help resolve bargaining impasses


Decision process in which an impartial referee listens to both sides and then makes a judgement by accepting one side's view


Temporary work stoppage aimed at forcing mangement to accept union demands


Pressure action by union members and sympathizers who refuse to buy or handle the product of a target company


Nonunion workers hired to do the jobs of striking workers


Decision by management to prevent union employess from entering the workplace; used to pressure the union to accept a contract proposal


Decision by management to prevent union employees from entering the union to accept a contract proposal


Court order that requires one side in a dispute to refrain from or engage in a particular action

unfair labor practices

Unlawful acts made by either unions or management


Formal complaint against an employer

progressive discipline

Escalating process of discipline that gives employees several opportunities to correct performance problems before being terminated

Employee Free Choice Act (EFCA)

Pending legislation that would significantly alter the union election provisions of the Wagner Act, making it easier for unions to organize groups of workers

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