World History:Patterns of Interaction Chapter22
Terms in this set (48)
Medieval view that the earth was an unmoving object located at the center of the universe, and that the moon, sun, and planets all moved in perfectly circular paths around the earth, while beyond the planets lay a sphere of fixed stars, with heaven still farther beyond; idea came from Greek philosopher Aristotle; Greek Astronomer Ptolemy expanded the theory
the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
Theory developed by Copernicus. The theory went against the church teachings, showing the sun was the center of the universe (not Earth), and planets revolve around the sun.
Danish astronomer who set up obervatory to study heavenly bodies and accumulated much data on planetary movements
Father of Modern Astronomy. German mathematician. Comfirmed heliocentric theory w/observations. Showed planets moved in ellipses rather then perfect circles.
Scientist who built the first telescope and proved that planets and moons move. Persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas
a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.
He believed that instead of relying on the ideas of ancient authorities, scientists should use inductive reasoning to learn about nature. Bacon developed the scientific method, a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence.
Developed analytical geometry, linking algebra and geometry. He relied more on logic and mathematics, rather than experimentation. "I think, therefore I am."
Great English scientist that helped to bring together the breakthroughs of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo under a single theory of motion. His great discovery was that the same force ruled motion of the planet and all matter on earth and in space. The key idea that linked motion in the heavens with motion on the earth was the law of universal gravitation. He published his ideas in a work called THE MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. It was one of the most important scientific books ever written. He believed God was the creator of this orderly universe, the clockmaker who had set everything in motion.
a Dutch maker of reading glasses that put two lens together in a tube making the first compound microscope
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Discovered bacteria when looking at water and scrapings from his teeth
Italian physicist who invented the mercury barometer (1608-1647)
German physicist who founded the fahrenheit scale of Temperature.
Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade thermometer (1701-1744)
greek physician; he wrote several volumes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day
~ Dutch Physician and anatomist who wrote ON THE FABRIC OF THE HUMAN BODY
~ Founder of modern human anatomy
~ Overthrew the Galen system of human body knowledge and used his own observations to advance new ideas regarding the nervous system, the skeletal system and the major organs of the body
~ His observations allowed him to create the first truly accurate drawings related to human anatomy and served as the guidelines for future illustrations in medical textbooks
In 1796 the British doctor created the smallpox vaccine, from the cowpox virus. (The vaccine helped lay the foundation for science of immunology in the 19th century.)
An English physicist and chemist, this man discovered the nature of elements and compounds and the basis of modern chemistry
gatherings in which intellectual and political ideas were exchanged during the Enlightenment
Famous Salon hostess. Invited brilliant minds including Voltaire, Baron de Montesquieu, and Diderot. Made exchange of ideas fashionable.
Philosopher who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600s and 1700s
relating to a simple, elegant style (based on ideas and themes from ancient Greece and Rome) that characterized the arts in Europe during the late 1700s
Absolute ruler who used his or her power to bring about political and social change
Enlightenment musicians and composers; classical music
Hayden Mozart, Beethoven
three main composers of the time that spent all of their time in Vienna, Austria
Written by Samuel Richardson, traditionally called the first novel, although it's not
A novel written by Henry Fielding that tells the story of an orphan who travels all over England to win the hand of his lady.
Fredrick the great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy
The son of Maria Teresa and a enlightened despot who ruled over the Austrian Empire.
Catherine the Great
Ruled Russia from 1762 - 1796; favored absolute power and authority but did try to reform Russia. Made Russia an international power and increased Russian territory.
The Navigation Act
required all imported and exported goods to be carried on British ships
French and Indian War
this struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of the North America was part of a worldwide war known as the Seven Years' War
The Stamp Act
tax on all stamped legal documents. Widely resented because it was a tax on information without consent
Boston Tea Party
protest against British taxes in which the Sons of Liberty boarded British ships and dumped tea into Boston Harbor in 1773
First Continental Congress
The assembly of colonial delegates from every colony except Georgia that met in 1774 in Philadelphia to oppose the Intolerable Acts.
Second Continental Congress
met in 1776 organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independance
written by Thomas Jefferson, declared that the colonies officially wanted to seperate from Britian, and listed the wrongs did by the king. says that people have the right to rebel, and that the power should come from the people
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
The United States Constitution
It is the shortest and oldest written constitution of any major sovereign state. The United States Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was ratified in 1798
meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and a number of individual states
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property
Series of essays that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.
The French Revolution
directly impacted by American Revolution-overthrew king -waged war with Austria-reign of terror