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FMS US History ID #51-#101
FMS US History ID #51-#101
Terms in this set (52)
According to our Declaration of Independence: life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. We are born with these rights. They are not given by man and can only be taken away in most narrowest of circumstances.
An unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good
the wife of John Adams. She attempted to get rights for the "Ladies" from her husband who at the time was on the committee for designing the Declaration of Independence.
Mercy Otis Warren
the head of patriot women during the revolution
published the pamphlet Common Sense in 1776 and later during the war American Crisis, in which argued that the colonists should free themselves from British rule and establish an independent government based on Enlightenment ideals
Women's Roles during Revolutionary War
Organizing fundraising drives, supplying the troops, working in the military camps, and tending to the wounded soldiers. Making homespun, home-made cloth; Spies; Some actually fought.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. The victory convinced the French to give military support to the American Revolution.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania is where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, Hundreds of men died from disease and malnutrition. Reflected the main weakness of the Continental Army: lack of stable supplies and munitions.
African-American patriot; leader in his community; fought at Saratoga.
"double-agent" on behalf of the United States. Pretended to be a runaway slave, he was able to infiltrate the British defenses and acquire countless important British war secrets
Marquis de Lafayette
Frenchman who successfully encouraged France to provide more support. He also fought in several battles
John Paul Jones
He was the first naval fighter for the colonists - known as the father of the U.S. Navy
1783 Treaty of Paris
Treaty between US and Great Britain that ended the American Revolution. The final agreement had six terms.
Articles of Confederation
1781 - first American constitution that established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, which was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes. Successfully organized the sale of western lands through laws called the Northwest Ordinances. Articles were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789.
Constitutional Convention of 1787
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Plan proposed at Constitutional Convention by Edmund Randolph. The Virginia Plan Called for a new national legislature consisting of two houses and a Judiciary branch. The lower house would consist of representatives based on the state population. Members of the upper house would be elected by members of the lower house. This plan caused opposition by both small states and large states.
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman's Compromise) was an agreement between large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the U.S. Constitution. It retained the bicameral legislature along with proportional representation in the lower house (House of Representatives), but required the upper house to be weighted equally between the states. Each State would have two representatives in the upper house (Senate).
A compromise made between Southern and Northern states during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 where slaves would be counted for representation purposes and for taxation purposes by US House of Representatives. Every 5 slaves were counted as 3 people. In effect, slaves were considered ⅗ a person.
Slavery and the New Nation
• Slavery was forbidden in the Northwest Territory • Congress would have the power to ban the slave trade, beginning in 1808. • Southern states wanted a fugitive slave clause. Runaway slaves could be pursued into other states and returned to their owners.
A basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do. Each individual has rights (natural rights) that government cannot take away.
American philosophy that stresses liberty and unalienable individual rights as central values, Government chosen by the people , Decisions are made by elected representatives, Expects citizens to be virtuous and faithful in their performance of civic duties, and vilifies corruption.
Influence of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact
Magna Carta (1215) English agreement that guaranteed trial by jury: influenced the U.S. Bill of Rights' protection of individual rights; English Bill of Rights: (1689) English agreement that guaranteed certain rights; influenced the U.S. Bill of Rights' protection of individual rights; Mayflower Compact: (1620) First example of self-government in the colonies "for the good of the colony"
Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
A system that separated the powers of government into three separate branches to limit power of each branch of government. Separation of powers led to the system of checks and balances so that the government would not become centered on one branch and one branch can't get more powerful than the other. The framers of the Constitution were concerned about absolute power in one group/individual.
Constitutional arrangement in which power is distributed between a central government and the states.
Government is created by and subject to the will of the people.
Opposed a strong central government, skeptical about undemocratic tendencies in the Constitution, insisted on Bill of Rights; included Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. Patrick Henry - One of the main opponents of the Constitution, he worked against its ratification in Virginia. George Mason - He opposed the Constitution because it didn't protect individual rights. His opposition led to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights.
Collection of essays by John Jay (5 articles), Alexander Hamilton (51 essays), and James Madison (29 articles). The articles explained the importance of a strong central government. Published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution. Used today to better understand the original intent of the framers of the Constitution.
To become the law of the land, the US Constitution needed approval from 9 of 13 states. Federalist Papers played an important role. First to ratify was Delaware. Opponents were New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Virginia. All states ratify by 1791.
Amending the Constitution
First ten amendments = Bill of Rights = personal rights. An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of the members of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures, or special state conventions elected for that purpose.
A republic's success depends on responsible citizenship which includes: obeying rules and laws, staying informed on public issues, voting, and serving on juries.
First President of the United States - faced challenges in creating a stable economic system, building an army, conducting foreign relations and warned the nation in his farewell address to "avoid entangling alliances" (do not become too close as friends to Britain or France)
First Secretary of the Treasury whose 4 part economic plan was to: 1. repay revolutionary war debt 2. create a national bank 3. create a tax on whiskey 4. create a protective tariff to protect American industry from foreign competition
Led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams • Loose constructionist view • Favored strong federal (national) government • Pro-British, merchants and manufacturers • Wanted a balanced economy of agriculture, trade, finance, and manufacturing • Wanted to established a national bank • Wanted to maintain internal taxes • Wanted to use the national debt to establish credit
• Led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison• Strict Constructionists• favored states rights• Pro-French, farmers and craftsmen• wanted voting extended to all adult males• Believed that America was obligated to help France• Opposed the establishment of a national bank • Wanted to eliminate internal taxes• Wanted to pay off the national debt
Judiciary Act of 1789
• Organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justice• Created several federal district and circuit courts.• Created the Attorney General's office. • This Act created the judiciary branch of the U.S. government.
Washington's Farewell Address
• Stressed maintaining commercial but not political ties to other nations.• Stressed not entering permanent alliances.• Stated that America's uniqueness depended on being independent action on foreign affairs
The second president and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts which hurt the popularity of the Federalist Party and himself. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Passed by Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798. It had 4 parts:• Naturalization Act: increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years • Alien Act: empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens• Alien Enemy Act: allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at war with the US• Sedition Act: made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
In an attempt to prevent war with France, President John Adams sent three secret go-betweens (X, Y, and Z) to talk with Talleyrand, the French foreign minister. The French demanded a bribe of $250,000 in order to merely talk with Talleyrand. The American agents refused to pay and returned to U.S. This occurrence led to Naval Battles between the two countries. (Quasi War)
3rd President of the United States. He favored limited central government. Approved the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and promoted ideals of republicanism. Sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore the LA Purchase territory.- Kept most Federalist programs because they were working. Kept the Bank of U.S.
The Embargo Act of 1807 forbid all exports of goods from the U.S. Jefferson wanted this act because:• England and France had been seizing U.S. ships and impressing men • He hoped it would weaken Britain and France by stopping trade. The Embargo Act ended up hurting our economy more than theirs. It was repealed in 1809. Considered one of the causes of the War of 1812.
In 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased 828,000 square miles of land for $15 million from Napoleon, the leader of France. The land mass stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Rocky Mountains and Canada. The purchase of this land caused national pride and ensured expansion.
Madison was the father of the constitution and the father of the Federalist party, as well as the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and previously served as Vice-President under Thomas Jefferson.
War of 1812
A war declared by the U.S. on Great Britain. Caused by:• Impressment of American sailors by the British• British seizure of American ships• British aid to the Native Americans attacking US citizens on the western frontier. The war was fought in Canada, the U.S. and on the sea. The British invaded and burn Washington, D.C. Technically, the war was a tie; however, the U.S. saw most of the benefits from the war. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the "status quo".The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Era of Good Feelings
the period from 1817 to 1823 in which the decline of the Federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony.
Fifth President of the United States. Author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
Chief Justice John Marshall
Appointed by John Adams ( 1801) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court- was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the state's rights Jeffersonians. The Federalists died out but Marshall continued to hand down Federalist decisions. He said that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was unconstitutional. Marshall greatly magnified the authority of the court in the Marbury v. Madison case by establishing judicial review.
Until 1803, controversy over who had the final say in determining the meaning of the Constitution, whether loose or strict interpretation should be used and who would decide. John Marshall of the Supreme Court, proposed "judicial review," which gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if a law is or is not constitutional.
Gibbons v Ogden
Suit over whether New York could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
McCullough v Maryland
Strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the bank of the United States by establishing that the state of Maryland did not have the power to tax the bank.
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