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WWI Unit 4 Study Set
Terms in this set (78)
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the causes of WW I. The Black Hand ordered a team of assassins to kill the archduke.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
Germany formed a military alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy
Causes of World War I
1.death of the archduke 2. a series of political changes in Europe 3. competition for power 4.compete for overseas colonies. 5. military build up. 6. alliances formed
an extreme pride or devotion that people feel for their country or culture.
nation trying to expand
provided precise instructions for waging a two-front war against France and Russia at the same time a surprise invasion of France by passing through Belgium, with a subsequent attack on Russia.
partnerships created to maintain peace,
Britain, France, and Russia
balance of power
equal strength. Many leaders thought that the alliance system would help decrease the chances of war.
War Breaks Out
Germany made the first move in the war, because of the invasion into Belgium Great Britain declared war on Germany. Then the alliances jumped in
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire, fighting together
Great Britain, France, and Russia,
new kind of warfare
Germans, dressed in gray uniforms that worked as camouflage to help them blend into the battlefield. The French marched in rows machine guns fired at them bayonets not effective against Germany and fire power
Battle of the Marne
German army advancing French troops refused to surrender French launched a daring counterattack French pushed the Germans back
soldiers lived in the trenches, surrounded by machine gun fire, flying grenades, and exploding artillery shells.Opposing forces had their machine guns aimed at enemy trenches at all times.
Soldiers would jump out of their trenches and run across the area between opposing trenches
Trench warfare created
poisonous gas, gas masks, motorized armored tank, artillery fire, airplanes launch bombs from the air
Baron Manfred von Richthofen
German flying ace Red Baron
British luxury ship it was torpedoed. About 1,200 people died. Among the dead were 128 Americans.
United States Stays Neutral
Americans thought of the war as a European conflict Woodrow Wilson declared that the United States would remain neutral
not being involved in the affairs of other nations.
German submarine warfare
unrestricted submarine warfare.
submarines attack all ships
the waters around Great Britain would be a war zone in which Germany would destroy all enemy ships. Germany warned the United States that neutral ships might be attacked as well.
Heading Toward War
American public was outraged by the sinking of the Lusitania. President Wilson demanded an end to unrestricted submarine warfare.
French passenger ship Germany attacked
Wilson threatened to end diplomatic relations with Germany. Germany did not want America to enter the war..so a promise not to sink merchant vessels "without warning and without saving human lives."
peace without victory
Wilson asked the Allied and Central Powers to accept a "peace without victory." This request angered the Allies.
a telegram from a German official to an official in Mexico.proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico. Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona."
United States declares war
Czar Nicholas II to gave up his absolute power Russia more democratic American role in world politics should be to promote democracy became more supportive of the Allies and the war after the Russian czar lost power. German U-boats sank three American merchant ships. United States joined the war on the side of the Allies.
Selective Service Act
men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register to be drafted into the armed forces.
Raising an army
new recruits reported for training but found almost nothing ready for them. Supplies had been ordered but had not yet arrived.a shortage of rifles, they practiced with wooden sticks. Instead of horses, the trainees pretended to ride wooden barrels.
African American soldiers
segregated into separate divisions and trained in separate camps. only a few black regiments were trained for combat.
assigned menial tasks the Men who did not speak English fluently but wanted to serve.the military established special programs to help them improve their English skills.
American Expeditionary Forces
led by General John J. Pershing soldiers from the regular army, the National Guard, and a new larger force of volunteers and draftees.
troop-transport ships were surrounded by destroyers or cruisers for protection. The convoy system reduced the number of ships sunk and limited the loss of troops and supplies.
took control of Russia's government
people who seek the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all private property.
Vladimir Ilich Lenin
Bolshevik leader withdrew the Russian army from the Eastern Front and signed a peace agreement with the Central Powers.
massive guns capable of firing a 2,100-pound shell almost 75 miles.
American military women
French-speaking American women to serve as switchboard operators. Known as the Hello Girls. nurses typists and bookkeepers, although some became radio operators, electricians, or telegraphers.
Second Battle of the Marne
Germans launched their last, desperate offensive The AEF defeated German troops at Mihiel, near the French-German border.
Battle of the Argonne Forest
Americans suffered some 120,000 casualties., On September 26, 1918, more than one million American soldiers pushed into the forest, making it the final Allied offensive. At first, the Americans advanced despite heavy German fire, and after 47 days, they broke through the German offensive and won the battle.
war was crippling the German economy. Central Powers had difficulty encouraging their soldiers to fight. Some soldiers even ran away. November 11, 1918, the armistice went into effect, and the guns of war fell silent.
United States economy after the war
Congress passed the War Revenue Act high taxes and taxed the wealthiest Americans government also borrowed money to pay for the war. The national debt grew
a form of loan to the government.
War Industries Board
authority to regulate all materials needed in the war effort.
Head of war industries board "No steel, copper, cement, rubber, or other basic materials could be used without our approval."
Lever Food and Fuel Control Act.
gave the government the power to set prices and establish production controls for food and for the fuels needed to run military machines.
Hoover asked Americans to plant vegetables and to have meatless Mondays" and "wheatless Wednesdays."
established to set production goals and prices for fuels. To encourage fuel conservation, Garfield introduced daylight saving time
National War Labor Board
judged disputes between workers and management
Women's war efforts
Women took on many jobs traditionally held by men. They worked on railroads, at docks, and in factories. They also built ships and airplanes.
was deadly. It killed healthy people within days. deadliest epidemic in U.S. history
Committee on Public Information
created by President Wilson, this committee's objective was to maximize national loyalty and support for World War I
newspaper reporter and political reformer
posters, newspaper stories, speeches, and other materials designed to influence people's opinions. This campaign was meant to encourage Americans to support the war.
punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty.
illegal for Americans to "utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal or abusive language" criticizing the government, the flag, or the military.
President Woodrow Wilson's plan for organizing post-World War I Europe and for avoiding future wars
the right of people to choose their own form of government
League of Nations
international body of nations formed in 1919 to prevent wars
David Lloyd George
Britain's prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses
"tiger of France", the French prime minister who wanted to ensure that Germany would never again threaten France; at the Paris Peace Conference., Big Four-France
The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Treaty of Versailles
treaty ending World War I; required Germany to pay huge war reparations and established the League of Nations
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
Fear of communism that swept across the United States
General Intelligence Division
Special division within the Justice Department that eventually became the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Investigated radicalism and subversion.
required military service
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
killed 25 machine-gunners and captured 132 German soldiers when his soldiers took cover; won Congressional Medal of Freedom
"ace" pilot who downed 26 enemy fighters in WWI
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