2011 Standards - The BIG EOC Review
Terms in this set (240)
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.
Protestant reformers who believe in the equality of all people (Society of Friends)
Protestant whose views and opinions differed from those of the Church of England
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Virginia House of Burgesses
The first elected assembly in the New World, established in 1619
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
Proclamation of 1763
law forbidding English colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Organizations that led protests, helped American soldiers, instated a boycott, and generally resisted the British.
The legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses (Coercive Acts)
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in Congress
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Movement to end slavery
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption
A tax on imported goods
Belonging to a period before a war especially the American Civil War
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
de facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
de jure segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
A euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South. The term aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War.
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.
Indian Removal Act
(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations)
In 1828, during President John Quincy Adams' term, Congress created a new tariff law which pleased northern manufacturers, but alienated southern planters
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
Union (Civil War)
The United States; especially the northern states during the Civil War, which remained with the original United States government.
A loose union of independent states; name of government used by the southern states that seceded during the Civil War
A political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery
1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
A person who wanted to end slavery
Uncle Tom's Cabin
a novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
Issued by Abraham Lincoln -it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free. No slaves were freed but AA soldiers began fighting for the Union
54th Massachusetts Regiment
all-black unit led by Union Colonel Robert Gould Shaw during the Civil War - Battle of Fort Wagner
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
13th Amendment (1865)
Abolishes and prohibits slavery
14th Amendment (1868)
citizenship, due process, equal protection
15th Amendment (1870)
U.S. cannot prevent a person from voting because of race, color, or creed
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs - education
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
a Northerner who moved to the South after the Civil War seeking AA Republican votes
Southern whites who supported Republican policy through Reconstruction
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal - "separate but equal"
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper
Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans.
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
the social process of absorbing one (minority) cultural group into harmony with another (majority) - Native Americans
Federally owned acreage granted to the railroad companies in order to encourage the building of rail lines
money for investment
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 law that prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers
A person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business.
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors
trade between states
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.
the use of both gold and silver as a basis for a national monetary system
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
A process for making steel more efficiently
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
the president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
a strong party organization that can control political appointments and deliver votes
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
Sherman Antitrust Act
an 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States
Strike-breakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
a country that is considered very strong by other countries
A policy that calls for expanding a nation's boundaries.
Direct involvement by one country in another country's affairs
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
Considered a cause of the Spanish-American War - letter from the Spanish ambassador criticizing President McKinley which was published in the Hearst newspaper. (1898)
Imperialist- an advocate of the policy of dominating other nations by acquiring their land or making them economically dependent
Anti-imperialist- Being opposed to wars of conquest, and expanding the country by taking someone else's land, especially when they do not have the same language and/or culture
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
Treaty of Paris 1898
Ended the Spanish-American War
Sphere of Influence
A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
A Chinese secret society that blamed the country's ills on foreigners, especially missionaries, and rose in rebellion in 1899-1900
Platt Amendment (1901)
Following its military occupation, the United States successfully pressured the Cuban government to write this amendment into its constitution. It limited Cuba's treaty-making abilities, controlled its debt, and stipulated that the United States could intervene militarily to restore order when it saw fit.
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Negotiation between nations
Big Stick Diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japanese men already living in the US to join them
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
MAIN causes of WWI
defense agreement among nations
a German submarine that was the first submarine employed in warfare, initially used during WW1
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
Sedition Act of 1918
added to Espionage Act to cover "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or the armed forces.
Name of peace conference held in France after the Great War in 1919.
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
a feeling of disenchantment; finding out that something is not as good as you had expected
Return to Normalcy
Harding's campaign slogan, wanting to go back to how things were before the war (WWI)
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Installment plan for Germany, a way to help them pay reparations
Young Plan 1929
Reduces reparations by 75% and gives Germany 59 years to pay
Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion
a woman who stays at home to cook, clean and take care of her family
A payment plan that allows customers to make payments at set intervals over a period of time until the total debt is paid
buying on margin
paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)
Makes and Enforces rules for the stock market
FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)
an agency developed by the federal government to regulate banking and and investment activities
Where FDR tried to add more members to the Supreme Court to pass his programs.
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
19th Amendment (1920)
Gave women the right to vote
payment plans (installments)
Red Scare (1919-1920)
A brief wave of fear over the possible influence of Socialists/Bolsheviks in American life.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
A law forbidding the sale, manufacture and transportation of alcoholic beverages
A place where alcoholic drinks were sold and consumed illegally during Prohibition
Smugglers of illegal alcohol during the Prohibition era
Herbert Hoover's belief that people must be self-reliant and not depend upon the federal government for assistance.
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
a fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers
The American Civil Liberties Union. It defends and preserves the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country.
people who oppose all forms of organized government
Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
Cash and Carry
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
Destroyers for Bases
Roosevelt's compromise for helping Britain as he could not sell Britain US destroyers without defying the Neutrality Act; Britain received 50 old but still serviceable US destroyers in exchange for giving the US the right to build military bases on British Islands in the Caribbean.
allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
British and American statement of goals for fighting World War II
Base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan on December 7, 1941 - America enters WWII
the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war
the civilian population and activities of a nation whose armed forces are engaged in war abroad.
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.
A limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
Island Hopping Campaign
US strategy to reach mainland Japan by capturing key islands
Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 confrontation between US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba.
A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
Hitler's program of systematically killing the entire Jewish people
a German member of Adolf Hitler's political party
Deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood.
A series of court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity.
"Night of Broken Glass," when Nazis attacked Jews throughout Germany
A Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
A 1938 agreement between Great Britain and Germany to appease Hitler
A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.
A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
American policy of resisting further expansion of Communism around the world
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
October, 1957 - The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Red Scare (1950s)
The second period of time in U.S. history when various government agencies sought out and prosecuted persons suspected of being pro-communist
Bay of Pigs
An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Iran Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
A ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
working and middle-class white people move away from racial-minority suburbs or inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
1964 effort to register African American voters in Mississippi
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage
Head Start Program
a federal program that provides academically focused preschool to students of low socioeconomic status
A federal and state assistance program that pays for health care services for people who cannot afford them.
A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
Gulf of Tonkin
Incident in 1964 that President Johnson used to justify increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Claim was that two U.S. ships had been attacked.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the Vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawal of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Napalm and Agent Orange
Used by US to try to clear out vegetation so that they could locate the enemy in the jungles.
Trickle Down Economics
economic theory that holds that money lent to banks and businesses will trickle down to consumers
Roe v. Wade (1973)
The court legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the first three months of pregnancy.
Government documents that showed the public had been lied to about the status of the war in Vietnam
Kent State Massacre
Four killed, nine wounded by Ohio National Guard during protest of U.S. invasion of Cambodia
A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.
POWs and MIAs
prisoner of war/missing in action
My Lai Massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
Viet Cong (VC)
This was the name of the members of the communist guerrilla movement in Vietnam (North)
deliberately kill (an unpopular senior officer), typically with a hand grenade.
War Powers Act
1973. A resolution of Congress that stated the President can only send troops into action abroad by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack or serious threat.
scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
international agreement first signed in 1947 aimed at lowering trade barriers
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
Allows open trade between the US, Mexico, and Canada.
Conservative political movements in industrialized democracies that have arisen since the 1960's and stress "traditional values"
Liberals and Conservatives
Liberal policies generally emphasize the need for the government to solve problems. Conservatives believe in personal responsibility, limited government, free markets, individual liberty, traditional American values and a strong national defense.
Glasnost and Perestroika
Glasnost is a policy that was introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev which means openness in 1985. He supported the Soviet citizens to talk about ways to improved their living environment. In 1985, he imported the idea of Perestroika, which means economic restructuring. This was tried in 1986.
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
pertaining to finances
weapons of mass destruction
rich-poor gap between different ethnic, economic or social groups
the spread of nuclear weapons
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
World History: Patterns of Interaction (Chapter 15)
World History Patterns of Interaction Chapter 16
World History: Patterns of Interaction (Chapter 14)
USHC Standard 1 Key Terms
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
5.1 Isolationism to Imperialism
USHC Standard 4 Key Terms
USHC Standard 5 Key Terms