GEOG 1203 Final

Term
1 / 206
UAV
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (206)

In 1962 the government enacted shark culling as
part of their Shark Control Program whose
purpose is to reduce the possibility for an attack in
coastal waters.

Sharks being the apex predator, control and
prevent overpopulation of species below them on
the food chain, which help maintain the
biodiversity. However, due to the removal of
many sharks, the populations of predatory fish
such as groupers have increased, directly affecting
and reducing the population of herbivores. The
lack of herbivores results in excessive growth of
microalgae, which then inhibit the growth of coral,
ultimately jeopardizing the success of the whole
reef system.
Shark
Control -
Sharks
Caught By
Type
Queensland Shark
Control Program
Non-Target
Species by Year
2001-2017
Bycatch

Many of the methods used to eliminate sharks also result in unintended catch of other
fish and marine life known as bycatch

Oftentimes a lot of those species caught are endangered
8 causes of biodiversity loss1. Habitat Loss and Fragmentation 2. Invasive Species 3. Over-exploitation of Resources 4. Pollution 5. Global Climate Change 6. Population Growth and Overconsumption of Resources 7. Illegal Wildlife Trade 8. Species Extinctionimportance of biodiversity-helps ecosystems respond to disturbance/change -provides humans with many ecosystem services -improves production of goods (food, fuel, fiber, medicine)what do National Parks do?National parks serve as an important tool for raising awareness, money, and support for the environment. Adding more parks will help maintain biodiversity.Importance of birdsPollination Food source Pest populations low Commercial use.reasons why reef degradation occursCoral Bleaching when the temperature of the surrounding waters become too warm to support algae life residing within coral structures, resulting in the expulsion of the algae, leaving behind nothing but white skeletal frames. and tourism. Runoff from inland farming activities significantly impacted the reef's health by polluting the surrounding water, rendering the coral more susceptible to bleaching. ● Algal blooms created by nitrogen runoff result in explosions in starfish populations, which severely alter the balanced and delicate ecosystem of the reef ● Australia's economy also relies upon commercial shipping as well as tourism, and because of this has led many operations to expand several ports.BiosphereConsists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.Agent Orangea herbicide used in the Vietnam War to defoliate forest areasherbicidesubstance that kills plantsDDTan insecticide that is also toxic to animals and humans. An insecticide used during WWII to keep flea and mosquito populations down to prevent disease.insecticidesubstance that kills insectsHitchhikersinvasive species that are spread by 'hitchhiking' on human transports (Boats, planes, cars, etc.)deforestationDestruction of forestsEnvironmental Modification ConventionAn international treaty prohibiting the use of widespread, long-lasting, and severe environmental modification techniques during military conflict.Protocol 1 of the Geneva Conventionsinternational regulatory law that prohibits the indiscriminate target of civilians, food, water, and other materials needed for survival.Direct ConflictMilitary engagements that physically takes place on the ground.habitat heterogeneityDescribes a habitat or community that has a complex physiognomy or structure, including in the distribution, density, and relative heights of plants within it.demilitarized zoneA strip of land between North and South Korea incorporated at the conclusion of the Korea War. It spans the entirety of the peninsula and has acted as a wildlife refuge due to the absence of human settlement.dead zoneA dead zone is a hypoxic area and biological desert in which any mobile life abandons the area and that which cannot relocate dies due to low levels of oxygen. In the Gulf of Mexico, this hypoxia is caused largely by the agrarian runoff from the Mississippi.Point SourceA single identifiable outlet of pollution. For water pollution this may be a particular pipe or the dumping of waste into a waterbody. However, this does not cover agricultural operations and their runoff.RunoffThe draining of water and what it contains from the surface into a waterbodyCover CroppingAn agricultural practice of planting a crop to manage soil quality, retain water, suppress weeds, and promote biodiversity rather than for its yield.At our current rate, chemical use in agriculture will need to rise 10% by 2050. ● The dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico covers an area of roughly 7,830 square miles, approximately the size of Massachusetts. ● Water bodies south of the Minneapolis metro experience 60 to 80% levels of pollution from agricultural runoff. ● Production of corn and soybeans increased by 338% between 1948 and 2015 due primarily to advancement in chemical inputs. Key Ideas: ● Feeding 7.5 billion people without the input of chemical components is a problem with no solution as of now.things to know for human health environmentIndividualismThe habit or principle of being independent and self-reliant. This type of consumer culture is prominent in the United States.CollectivismThe practice or principle of giving a group priority over each individual in it. This type of consumer culture is prominent in Europe and Asia.Earth Overshoot DayA calendar date that marks when humanity's annual demand on nature exceeds what Earth's Ecosystems can regenerate in that year. The first ecological deficit was in 1970 and has been pushed closer continuously since.Statistics to know in regard to the topic: ● 10 of all human waste is clothing. ● Projected population of 10 billion by 2050. ● Younger populations are spending less money and consuming less, as their populations are growing at a slower rate. ● Earth Overshoot Day for 2019 was August 1st. Key Ideas: ● Consumer cultures vary between different world regions and are affected by ideologies and their respective societies. ● Consumer culture has evolved over time and varies with economic prosperity. ● Social media has created a new vector for advertising and created a culture of 'staying in trend.' ● Society is shifting towards technology and making more online purchases. ● Consumers are more invested in researching the environmental impacts of the products they purchase.Consumer CultureGreenwashingAn advertising practice of making unsubstantiated or misleading claims about the environmental benefits of a company's product or serviceSupply ChainA network of individuals, organizations, resources, and activities involved in the creation and sale of a product.Sustainable Supply Chain Management Programs (SSCMs)The practice of taking conscious measures to lessen the environmental impact that a product has.Closed Loop Supply ChainThe strategic planning for a product to have additional value after it is used.SubsidyA sum of money granted by the government to a public body to assist an industry or business that the price of a commodity or service may remain low or competitive.Corporate LobbyingThe practice of corporations hiring lobbyists to influence and push political agenda to further their success and profits.Parent CorporationA corporation that owns enough stock in other firms to control management and operation.Risk ManagementForecasting and evaluating of financial risks together with the identification of procedures to avoid or minimize their impact.Brundtland ReportA UN report, sometimes called Our Common Future , published in 1987 that pushed for sustainable development using three main goals: Re-examining issue regarding the environment and development, strengthening international cooperation regarding environmental policy concerns, and raising general levels of concern regarding environmental protection.Statistics to know in regard to the topic: ● Corporations account for 71% of emissions worldwide. ● 90% of CEOs state sustainability is important to their company's success. ● IKEA aims to run on 100% renewable energy in the near future. Key Ideas: ● Companies utilize environmentalism as a marketing strategy. ● Corporations are the leading contributor of emissions and pollution in the world. ● Companies have varying outlooks on the importance of sustainability and profit.Corporate Sustainability PlansChina's Environmental Protection Lawis the collection of laws, regulations, agreements, and common law that governs how humans interact with their environment. Its purpose is to protect the environment and create rules for how people can use natural resources.China's Environmental Impact Assessment LawAn amendment to China's Environmental Impact Assessment Law was passed in the beginning of July. The law originally went into effect in 2003, aiming to mitigate the damage that construction projects cause the environment and promote the coordinated development of the economy, society and nature.China's Cleaner Production Promotion Lawthis law was enacted in order to promote cleaner production, increase the efficiency of resource utilization, reduce and avoid the general pollutants, protect and improve the environment, ensure public health, and promote sustainable development of the economy and society.China's Circular Economy Promotion Lawis enacted for the purposes of facilitating circular economy, raising resources utilization rate, protecting and improving the environment and realizing sustainable development.United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)An independent federal agency founded in 1970 that is responsible for regulating and managing environmental concerns.Endangered Species Act (ESA)Legislation enacted in 1973 aimed at furthering the conservation of threatened and endangered species and their habitats.The Clean Water Act (CWA)Legislation passed in 1972 that regulates the integrity of surface waters, including their chemical, physical, and ecological qualities.The Clean Air Act (ACC):Legislation passed in 1963 to control national air pollution from both stationary and mobile sources to help address the public health risks posed by widespread air pollutants. It also set the groundwork from which environmental policy could be furthered.The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)Legislation passed in 1970 that created a broad framework to hold all branches of government accountable for considering the environment before enacting major federal action that would affect the environment.Statistics to know in regard to the topic: ● According to the WHO, air pollution in China is responsible for over 30,000 deaths annually. ● China leads the world in air pollution. ● More than one fourth of China's rivers are unsuitable for human contact. Key Ideas: ● Environmental laws are aimed at not only preserving the environment, but also securing the health for citizens. ● Current political trends in the US have seen a rollback of environmental protections and regulations. ● Countries like China are struggling to stay environmentally conscious while also managing the development of resource needs, such as electricity.Environmental LawGMOgenetically modified organism, an organism that has had its DNA modified to exhibit particular traits.CloneAn identical genetic copy of an organism.Genetic EngineeringThe deliberate modification of characteristics in an organism through the manipulation of its genes.Artificial SelectionThe intentional breeding of a population to exaggerate desired traits.ResistanceThe ability to not be affected by something, whether that be pests, herbicide, or disease.HybridizationThe breeding of two species to produce a new species that possess traits from both parents.MonocultureAgriculture that consists of the raising of one type of crop in a given areaIrish Potato FamineA historic famine that lasted from 1845-1849 that resulted in the blight and destruction of the majority of Ireland's potato crop. The monoculture potatoes were genetically similar and susceptible to the disease, resulting in widespread food insecurity.Food SecurityWhen all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.Industrial Agriculturemodern form of farming/livestock production, largely based on monoculture - politically, technoscientific, and economically drivenShelf lifeThe period that an item is fit for consumption.WHOThe World Health Organization, UN directive to help with global/UN health initiativesRichliteresin-infused paper material used by several builders, including guitar manufacturersSustainable Lumber Co (Montana)Company using beetle killed pine for different products (also think - Jack Johnson)Farm Aidmusic festival to keep agriculture and family farmers in business and to keep factories from running them out of business.BlackfishDocumentary that hurt the Sea World use of OrcasTo know : --guitar tonewoods and regulations --ways guitar manufacturers are reusing materials -think recycled saw dust --how are music festivals lessening the impact on the environment during various events? --impact of streaming --impact of screen time on children for environmentally-based programming - different movies showcased in presentationMusic/Film and the environmentDesertificationDesertification is the process by which land that was once agriculturally producing, is no longer doing so at the same rateAeolian SoilsSoils which form usually in arid environments consisting of sand and silt-sized grainshow many people are lost due to air pollution per year in/on Africa?300,000 people per yearwhat happens to your body when you come in contact with/what impacts do air pollutants have?- Exposure to ozone can cause respiratory and cardiovascular disease. - When you have too much carbon monoxide in your system your body will replace the oxygen in your blood cells to carbon monoxide. This will lead to tissue damage or death. - Exposure to sulfur dioxide can cause swelling of the lungs and you can have a difficult time breathing. - Exposure to sulfate can cause irrigation in lungs, eyes, skin and your mouth.what % of. World forest fires typically occur in/on Africa?Africa being a very dry continent. They are about 70% of the forest fires in the world.what are the impacts of aerosols?The Aerosol in the air from burning mixes with mineral dust. High aerosol can lead to temperature change Also produce a soot. Black Carbonhow do soils travel?suspension, saltation, and creepwhat is the number one killer in Africa now?Some studies conducted by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies found that natural particulates could account for the most amount of deaths in Africa, even above industrial pollution. The sediments discussed earlier will be inhaled and deposited into the pulmonary alveoli. • The silica deposited irritates the lung tissue and can cause the formation of collagen to promote scarring. • This is known as silicosis and is the primary factor in minerogenic causes of death.DPRDirect Potable Water, method of recycling water to create a potable water sourceSalt water intrusionwhen groundwater is pumped from a coastal aquifer, lowered water levels can cause seawater to be drawn toward the freshwater zones of the aquifer. The intruding seawater decreases the freshwater storage in the aquifersAcidificationprimary pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ammonia (NH3), together with their reaction products, lead after their deposition to changes in the chemical composition of the soil and surface water. This process interferes with ecosystems, leading to what is termed ' acidification '.Algal Blumealgal blooms occur when algae grows out of control and produce toxic or harmful effectsKnow about the following: --oil spills --California's water projects --water storageWater Quality (USA)Regenerative AgricultureFarming practices that aim to increase biodiversity, enrich and rejuvenate soil quality, and improve watersheds.Commercial AgricultureLarge-scale food production intended for mass marketing and widespread distribution to wholesalers and retail outlets.Soil DegradationThe decline in soil quality due to physical, chemical, or biological factors.GHGs (greenhouse gases)Greenhouse gasses, including CO2, N2O, and CH4, absorb radiant energy, leading to an increase in global temperatures.Holistic ManagementFarming practices that aim to better manage resources to have beneficial environmental, social, and economic impacts.Holistic Planned/Managed GrazingMicromanaging where and how much livestock graze in order to keep them from overgrazing areas.AgroforestryA system where woody perennial plants are planted alongside agricultural crops or in livestock grazing areas in order to provide ecosystem services, increase biodiversity, reduce fertilizer inputs, and help with carbon sequestration. Often this is done through alley cropping, where trees are planted between rows of crops.No-Tillage FarmingAn agricultural technique that grows crops without disturbing the soil through tillage. Agitating the soil compacts it, decreases its ability to retain water. It also leads to the deprivation of organic matter. However, it relies heavily on chemical inputs such as herbicides and pesticides.CompostingThe supervised decomposition of organic matter with the intended use as fertilizer. Using compost enriches soil quality, helps retain moisture, and reduces the need for chemical fertilizer inputs.National Resources Conservation Servicefederal agency established during the Dust Bowl, it is charged with promoting regenerative practices and preventing climate change.● Agriculture contributes roughly 56 percent of non-CO2 GHG emissions. ● There is approximately 60 years' worth of topsoil left globally. ● Ten states passed healthy soil legislation in 2019 (Vermont, Illinois, Nebraska, New Mexico, Delaware, and Hawaii). ● General Mills made a three-year $2 million commitment to the Nature Conservancy, Soil Health Institute and the Soil Health Partnership as part of their move towards supporting sustainable agriculture.Regenerative AgricultureSDH areashealthcare, economic stability, community and social context, neighborhood and physical environment, food, educationFood Deserttermed in Scotland, urban areas with 10 or fewer stores and no stores with more than 20 employees to poorer areas where residents cannot buy healthy, affordable food; to places where residents don't have access to affordable, nutritious foodsSocially Responsible InvestingA hybrid investment strategy that brings environmental and social goals into consideration when it comes to financial investment and gain.Environmental, Social, Governance (ESG)The three central factors in measuring the sustainability and societal impact of an investment in a company or business.Dividend InvestingInvesting in a company that pays out high dividends to its investors, usually on a quarterly basis.Growth Investinginvesting in a company that shows a high growth rate, even if that company is already expensive to buy stocks in.Value InvestingInvesting in a stock that is believed to be undervalued, mainly due to the overreaction of bad news in the market.Key Ideas: ● Socially responsible investing tries to balance two goals, the social impact and financial gain. ● Companies use green marketing to attract investors. ● By investing in companies that are sustainable, it incentivizes the company to continue those practices and for other companies to follow suit.socially responsible investingAstroTurfArtificial grass that is used to make some sports fields. It does not need to be maintained but will eventually need to be replaced and cannot be recycled.Green Sports AllianceThe Green Sports Alliance is an environmentally focused trade organization that convenes stakeholders from around the sporting world (teams, leagues, conferences, venues, corporate partners, governmental agencies, athletes, and fan s) to promote healthy, sustainable communities where we live and play.Statistics to know in regard to the topic: ● Approximately 39 million pounds of trash are generated by sporting facilities per year. ● The average sporting event attendee generates a footprint 7 times greater than the average person. ● The average amount of CO2 emissions generated by commuters to a single college football game is approximately 1 million kilograms. ● The NFL generates 70% of its revenue from television deals and 3-5 million dollars in revenue each year comes from concessions. ● Concessions are sold for close to a 90% profit margin. ● The MLB is the first professional sports league to have all clubs in the organization be a part of the Green Sports Alliance. Key Ideas: ● Sporting events concentrate populations and generate a large amount of waste. Furthermore, sporting events require significant amounts of energy to operate their utilities. ● Transportation in regard to sporting events is a major sustainability issue. Not only do teams and their entourage travel across the country multiple times in quick succession, sporting event attendees also often drive individually to the event. ● Some sporting teams and their stadiums are taking strides to make attending sporting events more socially and environmentally sustainable by lowering prices and implementing clean energy sources.Sports in SustainabilitySustainable DevelopmentDevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)A collection of 17 global goals designed to be a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable society for all.Social SustainabilityThe idea that future generations should have the same or greater access to social resources as the current generation, while still allowing for equal access to social resources within the current generation.Economic SustainabilityPractices that support long-term economic growth without negatively impacting social, environmental, or cultural aspects of a community.Environmental SustainabilityMeeting the resource and service needs of current and future generations without compromising the health of the ecosystems that provides them.World Commission for Environment and DevelopmentA UN group established in 1983 that is charged with creating long-term plans for sustainable development. This group published the "Brundtland Report" that coined the term sustainable development.Unlimited Economic GrowthThe belief held by some that there is potential for unlimited expansion of production and profit. This belief was driven by the industrial revolution and continued into the 20th century."Limits of Growth"A 1972 report that showed the exponential growth of population and economic growth but a finite supply of resources. This trend would lead to a sudden crash as resources become scarce, resulting in a sudden loss in both population and industry.Green SpaceAn area of vegetation set apart for recreational or aesthetic purposes in an urban environment.Cap and TradeThe commoditization and trading of caps for carbon emissions between corporations. This incentives corporations to lower carbon emissions as it allows for them to then sell their unused emission cap.Key Ideas: ● Unlimited economic growth is not sustainable in the long-term and will eventually crash. ● Sustainable development goals help countries focus on particular areas to move towards more sustainable practices. ● Sustainability encompasses social, economic, and environmental sustainability.Sustainable DevelopmentWater ReclamationThe treatment of wastewater to a level that allows for it to be reused beneficially.Wastewaterany water that has been used by humans. This includes human sewage, water drained from showers, tubs, sinks, dishwashers, washing machines, water from industrial processes, and storm water runoff.potable waterwater that is safe to drinkwater treatment plantA Facility That Cleans The Water In Order To Make It Safe For Humans To Drink.AerationAir is forced through the water to release unwanted gases, which reduces odor and improves tastepurificationthe process by which pollutants are removed from wastewaterChlorinationdisinfection of water by the addition of small amounts of chlorine or a chlorine compoundUnited States Bureau of ReclamationFormerly the U.S. Reclamation Service, is a federal agency within the Department of the Interior that oversees water resource management and reclamation.Statistics to know in regard to the topic: ● The energy required to power wastewater treatment facilities makes up about 35% of the U.S. municipal energy budgets and 3 to 4% of energy use nationwide. ● There are currently more than 16,000 public water treatment works, servicing approximately 75% of the country's population. ● The average home uses 80-100 gallons of water per day, 95% of which is wasted. ● Water reclamation uses up to 1,400 kWh per 300,000 gallons of water, and account for approximately 0.3% of the total U.S. greenhouse emissions. ● Only approximately 0.3% of earth's water is attainable and drinkable by humans. Key Ideas: ● Water reclamation is vital for making the most out of the limited water we have. ● Using and storing 'new' water irresponsibly is damaging to water habitats. ● Water reclamation requires a large amount of energy.water reclamation12 Sort ApproachA flowchart developed by Dr. Daniel Knapp to help users sort trash and determine where it should go to create zero waste.Circular EconomyAn economy model in which resources remain in use for as long as possible, from which maximum value is extracted while in use, and the products and materials are recovered and regenerated at the end of the product life cycle.Total RecyclingA closed loop system where all waste is eventually reused or further used as an input.Hierarchy of Waste ManagementFrom most to least importance: Prevention > Minimization > Reuse > Recycling > Energy Recovery > Disposal5 R'srefuse, reduce, reuse, repurpose, recycleCradle to Cradlesustainable design strategy that mimics the regenerative cycle of nature in which waste is reused. This philosophy is used in some product designs, where the waste has purpose after the item is used.Statistics to know in regard to the topic: ● 1.3 billion tons of waste are produced each year. The leading countries of waste production are the U.S., China, Brazil, Japan, and Germany. ● The U.S. produces over 250 million tons of trash a year. ● 71% of the world's municipal solid waste end up in a landfill. ● In 2015, only 14% of the 141 million tons of plastic waste was recycled.\ ● 40 % of food goes to waste in the US. Key Ideas: ● Most of the waste that humans create ends up in landfills. ● Zero waste is beneficial for the environment by reducing the effects of climate change, conserving natural resources, and minimizing pollution. ● Zero waste is beneficial for humans by reducing costs through reuse, redistributing useful goods to those in need, and increasing human health. ● In our current society, living a zero-waste style is very difficult as most products are not designed with zero waste in mindZero WasteAquiferA body of rock or sediment that stores groundwater and allows the flow of groundwater.AquitardA slab of impervious surface at the bottom of an aquifer that does not allow water to go throughartesian wellA well in which water rises because of pressure within the aquiferconsumptive waterwater that is returned to the atmosphere as water vaporDesalinationA process of removing salt from ocean waterdrainage basinthe area from which a single stream or river and its tributaries drains all of the watergroundwater miningwhen rate of water pumping is higher than rate of rechargeinstream water use- ecological services (weather, climate, plant nutrient uptake) - water transport - hydroelectric energy - recreationOffstream water usePermeabilityAbility of rock or soil to allow water to flow through itPorosityThe percentage of the total volume of a rock or sediment that consists of open spaces.saltwater intrusionan infiltration of salt water in an area where groundwater pressure has been reduced from extensive drilling of wellssurface runoffWater flowing off the land into bodies of surface water.TranspirationEvaporation of water from the leaves of a plantwater crisisthe UN's term to describe the situation we are in today where up to 40% of humans alive do not have access to sufficient clean waterunsaturated zonea layer of rocks and soil above the water table in which the pores contain air as well as waterAral Sealake that has lost 80% of water volume from irrigation projects; runoff with chemicals inside it flows into this lake and has made it pollutedalgal bloomThe rapid growth of a population of algaeArsenic poisoningtoxicity can result fromexposure to pesticides/insecticides (so can Ach overexposure so keep that in mind too). Presents witih abdominal pain, vomitting, diarrhea, hypotension (from volume loss), and a garlic breath odor. Tx: Dimercaprol (pharm)BioremediationThe use of living organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystemsconstructed wetlandsArtificially constructed wetlands used to purify water.cultural eutrophicationan increase in fertility in a body of water, the result of anthropogenic inputs of nutrientsBottled waterdrinking water sold in bottlespeak oilThe point at which half the total known oil supply is used upRadioactive half-livesPrimary energyenergy contained in natural resources (coal, oil, sunlight, wind, uranium)smart gridan efficient, self-regulating electricity distribution network that accepts any source of electricity and distributes it automatically to end usersRenewable generation variabilitycarbon sequestrationan approach to stabilizing greenhouse gases by removing CO2 from the atmospheretechnical potentialsystem/ topographic constraints, land-use constraints, system performanceGeographical potentialenergy carriersomething that can move and deliver energy in a convenient, usable form to end usersTransesterificationThe process that transforms one ester to another when an alcohol acts as a nucleophile and displaces the alkoxy group on an ester.synthetic biologyfield of biology involved in engineering new functions from living systemsEcosystem Services (4 types)primary producersthe first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organismsnormative analysisanalysis concerned with what ought to bepositive analysisanalysis concerned with what isPublic gooda shared good or service for which it would be impractical to make consumers pay individually and to exclude nonpayersnegative externalitythe harm, cost, or inconvenience suffered by a third party because of actions by otherspositive externalitybeneficial side effect that affects an uninvolved third partyfood milesthe distance a food travels from its site of production to the consumerfood securityPhysical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.Ghost AcresAdditional land offshore used to supply the diet of a nationCAFOConcentrated Animal Feeding OperationCommunity Supported Agriculturenetwork between agricultural producers and consumers whereby consumers pledge support to a farming operation in order to receive a share of the output from the farming operationlocavorea person who primarily eats food grown or produced locallytipping pointa critical percentage of newcomer housing occupancy is reached which may precipitate a rapid exodus by the former majority populationcradle to gravePlanning sustainability from the procurement of raw materials through the final disposal of the product.integrated waste managementan approach to waste disposal that employs several waste reduction, management, and disposal strategies in order to reduce the environmental impact of MSWwaste preventionalso known as waste prevention) any change in the design, manufacturing, purchase, or use of materials or.' products (including packaging) to reduce the amount or toxicity before they become municipal solid waste. Prevention also refers to the reuse of products or materials. (different then you think)Somatic effectsEffects of radiation that cause illness and are responsible for poor health (such as cancer, leukemia, and cataracts) but are not passed on to offspring.waste minimization, waste preventionreducing inputs of materials into a system to reduce outputs and, consequently, the amount of solid waste producedpollution preventionDevice, process, or strategy used to prevent a potential pollutant from forming or entering the environment or to sharply reduce the amount entering the environment."First flush" phenomenonpoint sourceA specific source of pollution that can be identifiedWatershedAn ecosystem where all water runoff drains into a single body of waterrain barrelA device you can use at home that would reduce the flow of stormwater into the sewage system that contributes to backed up sewers as well as flooding of rivers and streams then homes."peaky" waterwaysLCALife Cycle AssessmentLCIALife Cycle Impact AssessmentLCIlife cycle inventoryindustrial ecologySeeks to redesign industrial systems to reduce resource inputs and to maximize both physical and economic efficiency.Systems Thinkinga way of monitoring the entire system by viewing multiple inputs being processed or transformed to produce outputs while continuously gathering feedback on each partGreenwashingexploiting a consumer by disingenuously marketing products or services as environmentally friendly, with the goal of gaining public approval and salesProduct Stewardshipinvolves minimizing the pollution from production and all environmental impact throughout the full product life cycleTriple Bottom Linerecognition of the need for organizations to improve the state of people, the planet, and profit simultaneously if they are to achieve sustainable, long-term growthProduct chainthe full sequence of activities needed to turn raw materials into a finished producteco-efficiencycompany actions that produce more useful goods and services while continuously reducing resource consumption and pollutionExtend product/producer responsibilityend-of-life costsNet of amounts received/spent at salvage