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75 terms

psyc 2and5

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A biological psychologist would be most interested in conducting research on the relationship between
neurotransmitters and depression
For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle ____ must first relay incomining pain messages from your ankle to your spinal cord
Sensory neurons
Dendrites are branching extensions of
Neurons
The function of dendrites is to
Receive incoming signals from other neurons
An axon is
The extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the
Axon
The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)
Myelin sheath
A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the
Action potential
The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n)
Action potential
The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the
Threshold
A synapse is a(n)
Junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
Neurotransmitters
Reuptake refers to the
Reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron
Curare is paralyzing poison that functions as a(n)
Ach antagonist
The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ___nervous system
Peripheral
The central nervous system consists of
The brain and the spinal cord
Messengers are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the _____nervous system
Peripheral
The somatic nervous system is a component of the ____nervous system
Peripheral
You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the
Sympathetic nervous system
Developmental psychologists study the physical.. cognitive.. and _____ changes throughout the human life cycle.
Social
One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology centers around the issue of
Continuity or stages
Human sperm cells ____ than egg cells
Are smaller
During the course of successful prenatal development.. a human organism begins as a(n)
Zygote and finally develops into a fetus
Babies are born with several reflexes for getting food. One of these is to
Open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek
From ages 3 to 6.. the brain's neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the
Frontal lobes
Paiget was convinced that the mind of a child
Develops through a series of stages
According to Piaget.. schemas are
Peoples conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences
According to Piaget.. accommodation refers to
Adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences
Which of the following represents the current order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor.. preoperational.. concrete operational.. formal operational
Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget's ___stage
Sensorimotor
When Tommy's mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket.. he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget's ____ stage
Sensorimotor
If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation.. they are unable to
Recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape
According to Piaget.. egocentrism refers to
The difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view
Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their
Schemas
Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatricians waiting room.. little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother's skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of
Insecure attachment
In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting.. infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to
Use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings
Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the developmental of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers?
Responsive parenting
Already at 15 months of age.. Justin strongly senses that he can rely on his father to comfort and protect him. This most clearly contributes to
Basic trust
Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they
Impose rules and expect obedience
The McDougals use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as _____parents.
Authoritarian
Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be
Authoritative
At the age of 12.. Sean is happy.. self-reliant.. and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that Sean's parents are
Authoritative
Adolescence extends from
The beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood
The selective loss of unused connections among the brain cells is called
Pruning
During adolescence.. maturation of the _____ lags behind maturation of the ____
Frontal lobe; limbic system
Piaget is to cognitive development as Kolhberg is to ___development
Moral
According to Kohlberg.. morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ___morality
Postconventional
According to Kohlberg.. postconventional morality involves
Affirmation of self-defined ethical principles
Avoiding physical punishment is to _____ morality as respecting the laws of society are to ____morality
Preconventional; conventional
According to Erikson.. trust is to infancy as identity is to
Adolescence
Adolescents are most likely to be influenced by their parents with respect to _____.. and they are most likely to be influenced by their peers with respect to ____
Career aspirations; clothing preferences
Most 20-year olds outperform most 70-year olds on video games due to age-related differences in
Information-processing speed
Dementia is most commonly associated with
Alzheimer's disease
Compared with their counterparts of 40 years ago.. American men today are marrying
At and older age and American women are marrying at an older age
Psychologists who view the developmental process as a sequence of distinct stages generally believe that ____is(are) the same for everyone
The order but not the timing of the stages
Theories of human development have been most susceptible to criticism for overemphasizing..
Discrete age-linked stages
The stability of personality traits is greater among
Adults than among children
The parasympathetic nervous system
Stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat
After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard.. Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These psychical reactions were most directly regulated by his
Parasympathetic nervous system
Neural networks refer to
Interrelated clusters of neurons in the central nervous system
A simple.. automatic.. inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n)
Reflex
Hormones are the chemical messengers of the
Endocrine system
The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the
Endocrine system
The master gland of the endocrine system us the
Pituitary gland
Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n)
Lesion
To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task.. researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)
fMRI
The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the
Medulla
The reticular formation is located in the
Brainstem
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the
Cerebellum
The cerebral cortex us the covering layer of the
Cerebrum
The occipital lobes are to ____ as the temporal lobes are to ____
Seeing; hearing
The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain
Plasticity
The benefits of brains plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
Children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed
Those who corpus callosum is surgically severed are said to be patients with
Split brains
The ability to simultaneously copy the different figures with the right and left hand is most characteristic in those whose _____ has been cut
Corpus callosum