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List and describe the 7 functions of blood
Gaseous Exchange, delivery of major nutrients and micronutrients, removal of waste, delivery of hormones, defense, thermal exchange, and transports water
Distinguish whole blood, plasma, and serum.
Whole blood: RBC, WBC, and blood platelets in plasma
Plasma: Fluid of the blood
Serum: clear fluid after clotting
List the important components of plasma
Proteins - 7 grams
Salts - 900 milligrams
Small organic molecules - several hundred milligrams
List the 3 major classes of blood cells
List the types of white blood cells
Granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes
Describe the main functions of the various types of blood cells.
Erythrocytes - transport O2 and CO2
Neutrophil - phagocytize invading bacteria
Eosinophil - destroy larger parasites
Basophil - release histamine in immune reactions
Monocytes - phagocytize and digest invading microorganisms
B-Lymphocytes - make antibodies
T-Lymphocytes - Kill virus-infected cells
Natural killer cells - kill virus-infected cells
Platelets - involved in blood clotting
Define hematopoiesis and the organs, bones, and tissues in which it occurs, both in the embryo and in the adult
The process of blood cell production
Embryo - yolk sac, aortic vascular endothelium, liver
Adults - red bone marrow (vertebrae, sternum, ribs, clavicles, scapulae, pelvis, cranial bones, proximal ends of femur and humerus
Define anemia-name six types of anemia
Hemorrhagic - loss of blood
Aplastic - bone marrow loses capacity to produce RBCs
Iron deficiency - hemoglobin is low
Pernicious - lack of vitamin B12
Sickle cell -
Hemolytic - result from hemolytic disease of the newborn, bite of the brown recluse
In terms of hemoatopoiesis, describe what makes lymphocytes different from other blood cells.
First generated from lymphoid stem cells in bone marrow. Lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue colonies can further multiply and differentiate into various lymphocyte subtypes
Summarize how hematopoiesis is regulated, naming the various factors that control the production of the various cells found in the blood.
Red blood cell formation: by erythropoietin by kidneys
White blood cell formation: by growth factors
Platelet formation: by liver and kidney
Name the two B vitamins that are important in hematopoiesis
Vitamin B12 and folic acid
Describe a red blood cell, list its contents, and summarize its properties.
No nucleus, no DNA and cannot synthesize proteins
Contents: encloses a solution of proteins, salts, and enzymatic components of the glycolytic pathway. Lack mitochondria, contain carbonic anhydrase.
Quite flexible, contain hemoglobin
State the difference between an agglutinogen and an agglutinin, and describe how they are important in blood typing.
Agglutinogen: variety of antigens, determine blood type
Agglutinin: antibodies which have binding sites for agglutinogens
Explain why blood types are important during a blood transfusion.
If A receives B blood, anti-B agglutinin in the plasma will agglutinate and cause hemolysis of B-type RBC
Define an autologous transfusion
Bank your won blood before surgery, eliminates dangers of AIDS
Describe what is meant by Rh-positive and Rh-negative blood.
Rh Positive: RBC likely to have agglutinogen D
Rh Negative: RBC will not have agglutinogen D
Explain how a condition called hemolytic disease of the newborn can occur.
when Rh+ babies are born to Rh- mothers
Name the cell lineage in the bone marrow that gives rise to erythrocytes and name the cells that are committed to become erythrocytes and have begun to synthesize hemoglobin
Myeloid lineage of stem cells that can continue to multiply
Name the organ that synthesizes nearly all the plasma proteins
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