Earth Science Chapter 1

The Nature of Science: Scientific Method, Measurements, and Categories of Earth Science Study.
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Terms in this set (...)

Mass
The amount of matter in an object: this does not change based upon object's position. Unit = kilograms (kg)
Metric/SI System
Modern version of the metric system that uses the number 10 as the base unit.
Weight
The measure of gravitational force on an object. This can vary as one changes his/her location. Unit = Newton
Density
= Mass/Volume aka the amount of matter that occupies a given space.
Volume
The amount of space occupied by an object; this is usually measured in milliliters (mL) or liters (L).
Law
Basic fact that describes the behavior of a natural phenomena. (What)
Theory
An explanation using current understandings based upon many observations and repeated experiments; usually the result of the simplest principle that unifies once separate ideas. (Why)
Hypothesis
A suggested explanation for an observation usually stated in the form of an if/then...because statement. NOT AN EDUCATED GUESS or a Prediction
Independent Variable
The factor that is purposefully changed by the experimenter in an experiment.
Dependent Variable
The result of the change made in the experiment.
Controlled Experiment
The process of arranging two of the same experiment with only one factor changing at a time.
Observation
The use of one of the five sense, sight, smell, touch, hearing, and taste, to explore the world around you.
Inference
Using your opinion to make sense of what you are observing.
Constant
All variables left unchanged over the course of the experiment.
Qualitative Observation
Factual information describing an object's qualities such as color, taste, etc.
Quantitative Observation
Factual information describing an object in the form of numerical data.
Science
Study and investigation to gain knowledge and explain the natural world.
Technology
The practical application of scientific principles. Putting scientific knowledge to use.
Control Group
The standard for comparison used in an experiment. Helps you determine the effect of your change (independent variable).
Experimental Group
The group containing your independent variable (change).
Temperature
The measure of average vibrations of the particles that make up the material. The faster the particles move, the hotter the temperature. Units = Degrees Celsius