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MIC301: Digestive Infections (Protozoan, Helminth, and Bacterial)
Terms in this set (59)
helminth or protozoan: single celled euk
this bacteria is a curved-rod shaped, gram-negative bacteria
helminth or protozoan: multicellular animal
how is helicobacter pylori transmitted?
oral-oral or fecal-oral (person to person through saliva or by consuming food infected with helicobacter pylori)
the most common intestinal parasite in the U.S
true or false: most people with helicobacter pylori are asymptomatic
where do giardia parasites live within the human body?
inflammation and irritation of the stomach lining
how is giardia lamblia transmitted?
when cysts are ingested from feces-contaminated water, food, or soil
ulcerative sores in the lining of the stomach, small intestine, and/or esophagus
peptic ulcer disease
what parasite can be acquired by drinking from lakes/rivers, person-to-person contact via fecal-oral route, and consuming contaminated raw produce or undercooked meat
___________ cancer can develop after years of untreated acid irritation/erosion of gastric mucosa; result of chronic infection
this disease establishes after the ingested, acid resistant cyts reaches the small intestines and hatches to release two trophozoites
when this disease does occur, it presents as gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer
signs and symptoms of _________:
-vomiting and nausea
-diarrhea (watery and foul-smelling)
-excessive flatulence and abdominal cramps
acid blockers are used to do what in a helicobacter pylori infection?
aid in healing by reducing stomach acid
metronidazole can be used to treat this intestinal disease:
the majority of food borne illness is caused by ________ contamination of food or water
three ways to prevent a giardiasis infection
1) wash your hands
2) avoid drinking non-purified wilderness water
3) take extra precautions when traveling to parts of the world where the water supply is likely to be unsafe
true or false: in cases of food poisoning, an infection develops
false; an infection only develops in food borne infections
food borne infection or poisoning: common bacterial agents are toxins
food borne infection or poisoning: common bacterial agents are E. coli and salmonella
which has a longer incubation: food poisoning or food borne infection?
food borne infection
does it take a person longer to recover from food poisoning or a food borne infection?
food borne infection takes longer to recover from
true or false: E. coli is a part of the normal microbiota in mammalian intestines
how are different strains of E. coli distinguished from each other?
they are distinguished by differences in O and H antigens
E. coli is mainly transmitted through this route:
____________ is the most common E. coli disease
what is the most common cause of non-hospital acquired UTI's?
E.coli is highly _______ with a _______ infectious dose
true or false: E. coli infection is often an acute illness
what populations are susceptible to complications from E. coli?
children and elderly
what will happen if antidiarrheal agents are used in the case of E. coli?
the illness can be prolonged
gram-negative, motile rod
gram-negative, rod-shaped, flagellated, acid-sensitive
how are different salmonella strains differentiated?
O and H antigens
disease of the intestines
most human infections of ___________ is due to consuming contaminated produce, raw eggs, undercooked meat or seafood, or by handling pet reptiles and chicks
symptoms of what appear about 3 days after infection?
symptoms of what appear within 1-3 days after consuming contaminated food or water?
for severe cases of salmonella, what should be administered?
proper refrigeration is very important both before and after cooking in order to prevent:
comma-shaped, gram-negative bacterium with a single flagellum that produces a toxin
associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish, as well as inadequate water treatment and sanitation facilities
the cholera toxin triggers intestinal epithelial cells to release _________ and _______ into the intestines
electrolytes and water
what disease is associated with 'rice water stools'
why is a case of untreated cholera so dangerous?
loss of fluid and electrolytes results in potentially fatal dehydration and hypervolemic shock
how would a case of cholera be diagnosed?
by a fecal culture and symptoms
how is a normal case of cholera treated?
oral rehydration solution
is there a vaccine for cholera?
yes; only lasts 3-6 months
spore-forming, gram-positive rod
true or false: c. diff is a part of normal intestinal microbiota
yes, but only in small numbers
how does c. diff usually form?
after unrelated antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistant endospores form after normal microbiota are removed via a course of antibiotics, giving c. diff an opportunity to survive
pseudomembranous colitis can happen with serious cases of:
toxic megacolon can happen with serious cases of:
what is it called when the large intestine loses the ability to expel gas and feces, resulting in a the large intestine becoming distended and colon perforation?
what is it called when toxins cause severe inflammation in the colon and pus-filled pseudomembranous lesions forming?
what are the two best ways to prevent a c. diff infection?
1) avoiding unnecessary antibiotics
2) good hand hygiene
How does Helicobacter pylori cause ulcers?
Releases enzymes into mucosal layer that break it down, exposing it to HCI and pepsin
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