Praxis 2 Elementary Education: Content Knowledge Science & Social Studies
Terms in this set (426)
-a physical phenomenon produced by the motion of electric charge, resulting in attractive and repulsive forces between objects
-the ability of an object to attract iron
-Two poles that have opposing charges of force:
(+) positive charge, (-) negative charge
-a force under the influence of which objects tend to move away from each other, e.g., through having the same magnetic polarity or electric charge.
(- -) negative, negative or (+ +) positive, positive
-a force under the influence of which objects tend to move toward each other; e.g. through having difference magnetic charges
(- +)negative, positive or (+ -) positive, negative
size, distance, and proximity
-strength of forces depends on:
-a magnet with opposing forces. North pole is (+) positive and South pole is (-) negative.
-its axis is tilted at 23.5 and always pointed towards the north pole
-3 layers: core, mantle, and crust
-the push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another object
-only exists as a result of interaction
-measured using a Newton
-using force to move an object
-the exertion of force overcoming resistance or producing molecular change
-the ability to do work
Newton's 1st law of motion (inertia)
-law that states an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
example: falling, hitting a solid object, changes the speed
Newton's 2nd law of motion
law that states that acceleration is produced when a force acts on mass,
(+) greater mass = (+) greater force
(-) smaller mass = (-) smaller force,
example: pushing kids on a swing
Newton's 3rd law of motion
law that states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
example: pushing the petals on a bike or hitting a ball in the game of pool
-machine that has few or no moving parts,
examples: screw, hammer, wedge, inclines, or seesaw
-machine that has two or more simple machines working together to create work
examples: wheelbarrow, can opener, or a bicycle.
force and motion
-explains a phenomena such as tides and tsunamis on Earth and keeps the planets, sun, and moon in their orbits.
-anything that takes up space and has mass
-the amount of matter in a object
-Does not change
-describes the amount of space that matter takes up.
-the amount of gravitational force exerted over an object.
example: Moon and Sun have different gravitational pulls (volumes), but the mass of the objects are the same.
-112 basic kinds of matter
-substances that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of matter
-distinguished by its atomic number
Periodic table (Organization by elements)
organized by elements
1. It classifies the elements according to their atomic number,
2. tells us about the nuclear composition of any given element
3. describes how electrons are arranged around a given element
4. allows us to predict how one element will react with
A. Atomic number: integer equal to the number of protons
B. Element symbol: one or two letters
C. Element name
D. Atomic weight
Contents of the periodic table
Rows of the the Periodic Table
Known as a period and follows a pattern of increase by the atomic number
Columns of the Periodic Table
-called groups (18 total), and indicate elements with similar chemical, and physical properties
1 through 18, moving left to right
-the smallest component of an element
-composed of electrons, neutrons, and protons
-rest on the outer circles of atoms and holds a (-) negative charge
-rest inside the inner most circle of the atom, and holds a neutral charge; shares space
-rest inside the inner most circle of the atom and holds a (+) positive charge; Shares space
-a force in which two or more atoms bind together
are two or more atoms bonded together in a chemical bond.
natural- O₂; CO₂
-substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together with definite weight proportions.
-example:Water - hydrogen combined with oxygen which is H₂O
-represent how matter is reflected or perceived by the human eye.
-the ratio of mass to volume
-the resistance to penetration offered by a given substance.
-the ability of substances to transmit thermal or electric current.
-Heat and cold produce changes in the physical properties of matter; however, the chemical properties remain unchanged.
-example: the changes in water from solid-liquid-vapor, will still be H₂O in every state
-a measure of how well a material accommodates the movement of an electric charge
-Conductors: the matter allows the transfer of electric current or heat, from one point to another
-Non-conductors: the matter does not allow the transfer
examples: wood, rocks
is one type of matter (element), which can react, with the chemical properties, of other types, of matter.
typically, the same groups of elements will not react with each other, different groups may react
the greater distance of the elements on the periodical table, the better chance of a reaction
example: trash can in the rain (rusting)
Solid, liquid, gas, plasma
The four states of matter
has definite volume and shape
have definite volume but no definite shape
has no definite shape or volume
-examples: oxygen, steam, helium
-is not solid, liquid, or gas.
-It has no definite shape, or volume
-is formed at extremely high temperatures, when the electrons are stripped from neutral atoms
-a combination of one or more types of molecules, not chemically combined and without any definite weight proportions.
example: milk (water and butterfat properties)
homogeneous mixtures, evenly distributed throughout
an uneven, distribution of the substances, in the mixture throughout.
A mixture that is the same throughout; evenly distributed
examples:, Koolaid, cola, and seawater
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
examples: salt, sugar
Substance that does the dissolving
A change of matter, from one form to another, without a change in chemical properties
1. melting ice
2. tearing paper
3. chopping wood
4. writing with chalk
5. changes from liquid, gas, and solid
can be reversed
when the substances that were combined and are no longer the same molecules becoming a new substance.
1. burning wood,
2. mixing baking soda and vinegar (produces carbon dioxide)
3. rusty nail,
2. color change (sometimes)
3. gives off heat
4. absorbers heat, and becomes cooler
can not be reversed
evidence of chemical change
when heat is given off, during a chemical change
1., burning fire
2., hand warmer
3. out body temperature
when heat is absorbed, during a chemical change
1. cold pack
2. baking soda and vinegar
Energy of motion,
example: vehicle moving, after starting
example: rubber band, vehicle parked
Minimum amount of energy required to trigger a chemical reaction
example: starting a car
a form of energy arising from the random motion of the molecules of bodies, which may be transferred by conduction, convection, or radiation.
the measure of heat
3 ways to transfer heat
Energy is passed from atom to atom, through direct contact.
examples: cooling of a car, and heating a pan, on a stove.
Energy that is transmitted in the form of rays, waves, or particles traveling great distances, with no contact, during transferring the heat
examples: food in a microwave, X-ray machine, and nuclear weapons
Heat transferred, by the movement, of fluids-liquids and gases
examples: breezes, water, heat in a oven.
when connectors are touching, creating a path, for energy to travel
Example:, light switch on "on" or a door bell, pushed in
when connectors are not touching or when a non conductive is interrupting the connection.
Example: light switch on "off" or a door bell at rest
is not flowing or being transferred, it is caused by friction, causing a spark, and a noise, heard from a jump from negative to a positive charge.
2. balloon rubbed on a head and sticking to a wall
3. feet being rubbed on carpet and a spark on another object
energy that travels in waves, and in a straight-line path
range of different wavelengths, and frequencies, that distinguish by type of wave from another below ranking from longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies
1. Radio waves
7. Gamma ray
radio and aircraft communication are done through which type of waves?
astronomers use which type of waves to learn about the structures of the nearby galaxies?
which type of waves can be felt by heat and can be picked up through night vision goggles or to map dust between stars?
Our eyes detect visible light bulbs and stars all emit visible light. Waves we can see; colors of the rainbow; all colors have different wavelengths and travel at same speed-combine to make white light
waves that are given off by the Sun and are the reason for skin tans and burns; can also be given off by hot objects in space
A dentist uses these rays to image our teeth; airport security uses them to see through our bags; Hot gases in the Universe gives off these waves
Gamma ray waves
Doctors use these waves to see inside your body; the biggest generator of all is the Universe
curved like a segment of the interior of a circle or hollow sphere; hollow and curved inward
Curved outward, or having positive curvature, as in certain mirrors and lenses
light bounces off
Energy caused by an object's vibrations
the flow of electrons, or electric power or charge.
A source of energy, that is a limited supply, capable of being exhausted
1. natural gas
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
Conservation of Energy
a fundamental principle, stating energy cannot be created, nor destroyed, but only changed from one form to another
Boiling point; Fahrenheit 212 degrees, Celsius 100 degrees
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
Freezing point; Fahrenheit= 32 degrees, Celsius=0 degrees
The temperature at which a liquid changes state to solid.
carry on life functions such as respiration, nutrition, repair, movement, response, growth, excretion, secretion, and reproduction.
may perform one or more living activities but not all of them; can also perform no living activities
basic structural unit of all living things; the smallest component that can be considered living
Respiration, in which oxygen, is consumed, and glucose is broken down entirely. Water, carbon dioxide, and large amounts of ATP are the final products
when humans inhale, oxygen, and then exhale carbon dioxide.
A process plants use to turn sunlight energy into food (chemical energy); plants capturing, storing, and converting solar energy.
1. membrane to regulate the flow of nutrients, and water during entering, and exiting the cell.
2. contain genetic material (DNA), which allow reproduction.
3. require a supply of energy.
4. contain basic chemicals to make metabolic decisions for survival.
5. reproduce and are the result of reproduction.
Characteristics of a cell
any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other structures (organelles) enclosed within membranes; Usually multicellular; found in animals and plants
organisms without a cell nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelles
1. no nucleus,
2. no membrane-bound organelles,
3. single loop of DNA (nucleosome),
4. no cellulose,
6. cell membrane,
7. cell wall (made of carbs),
8. sometimes have cilia or flagella (movement).
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
Kingdom, >Phylum, > Class, > Order, > Family, > Genus, > Species
Classification of living things
consists of unicellular organisms.
the only group of living organisms made of prokaryotic cells
1. blue-green algae
contains a type of eukaryotic cell and includes diverse, mostly unicellular organisms that live in aquatic habitats
2. various types of algae
are multicellular organisms,
sophisticated organization systems
made up of eukaryotic cells,
do not contain chlorophyll,
cannot produce food through photosynthesis.
sophisticated organization system,
they have chloroplasts,
multiple forms and shapes,
most sophisticated type of organism,
highest level of evolution.
life begins with seed or fertilized egg, maturation, reproduction, and death.
Insects and butterfly - egg > larva > pupa > animal > reproduction then death.
Frog- egg > Embryo > Tadpole > Frog > reproduction then death.
Human- egg > Embryo or Fetus > Child through adolescent > human adult > reproduction then death.
Tree- seed > sprout > growing plant > mature tree > reproduction then death.
Cell > Tissues > Organs > Systems > Organ Systems > Organism.
the system of bones and skeletal muscles that
2. protect the body,
3. permit movement
A system of sensitive cells that respond to stimuli such as sound, touch, and taste
Involuntary movement (reflexes) > reactions created without desire
fight versus flight response.
Voluntary movement is intentional stimuli passed on by a nerve to the brain
moving a body part
The human body system that contains the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells
The body's defense against infectious organisms and other harmful invaders.
Brings oxygen into the body. Gets rid of carbon dioxide.
Digestive and Excretory systems
D breaks down food,
E removes waste from food out of blood
Composed of structures that form gametes, enable fertilization, support the development of the fetus, and enable the birth of a child.
a process in which parent cells divides to produce cells with half the number of genetic materials of the parent cell; produces gamets
the process by which the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell are divided into two new nuclei; the second process after fertilization in which forms a zygote
returning to diploid cells
which total 64 chromosomes
Germ cells (gamets)
specialized cells which are involved in reproduction
located within the gonads (ovaries and testes).
any cell forming the body of an organism
23 from father
23 from mother
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
A gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is present
Gene that is expressed only in the absence of a dominant gene
A change in a gene or chromosome.
Science dealing with the relation of living things to their environment and to each other.
Are organisms that use the Sun's energy to make their own food.
example: all plants
An organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
examples: rabbits, and bears.
An organism that lives on decaying organic material from which it obtains energy and nutrients.
examples: fungi, or bacteria.
An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism.
used for showing life cycles and how their environment effects them.
3 main parts of insects
features or characteristics of organisms that best help them to better survive their environments.
the internal and external forces that shape the physical makeup of a planet; ex: weathering, erosion, and plate tectonics
Appalachian mountains (us)
formed 250 million years ago by colliding tectonic plates
located in lower elevations created by rainfall collects and runs to the ocean; can be Constructive and destructing
located in lower elevation created by rainfall that collects
1. crust (soil, metal, and rocks) - several floating tectonic plates.
2. mantle is the thickest layer (rocks and metal) intense heat melting the layer to create magma which results in lava.
3. Core: outer core (solid) and inner core (liquid)
layers of the earth
The gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time.
German scientist created the continental drift theory
continuous motion, floating on the liquid mantel, always changing in size and position that forms the earth's surface
creations from glaciers.
3 main sources that change the earth's surface
process of breaking down rock, soil, and minerals through natural, chemical, and biological processes.
processes in which layers are naturally removed due to expansion (heat) and contracting (cold).
seen in desert where soil is exposed to extreme changes in temperature.
breaks down rock when water gets into rock joint or cracks and expands (freezes)
A type of weathering in which surface soil and rock are worn away through the action of glaciers, water, and wind.
Grand Canyon >
water created the depth
weathering created the width
A sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action
Fractures and deep cracks in the crust of the earth.
Boundaries in which the tectonic plates crash together.
common example: San Andreas fault in central California
the point on the surface where the quake is the strongest
a tool used to measure the amount of energy released by the earthquake.
are formed by constant motion of tectonic plates opening a weak area for heat to be released through lava in the earths crust.
the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass
1, moving rivers
2. affecting the function of bones and muscles
3. keeping the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and inhabitant from drifting into space.
4. guiding the development and growth of plants
rain water that collect in bodies such as oceans, lakes, or streams
water located beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations
the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet
It separates Earth from space.
1. absorbing energy from the sun to sustain life.
2. recycling water and other chemicals needed for life.
3. maintaining the climate, working with electric and magnetic forces.
4. Serving as a vacuum that protects life.
function of the atmosphere
lowest to outer layers
5 layers of the earth's atmosphere
Bottom layer in the atmosphere - where we live, breathe . It is also where all the weather occurs
2nd layer of atmosphere.
extends from 10 to 30 miles up.
location of ozone layer.
absorbs 95% of Ultraviolet radiation.
temperature increases with altitude increase.
3rd layer of the atmosphere.
Meteors burn up in this layer of the atmosphere, shooting stars, temperature decreases.
Coldest layer of the atmosphere.
4th layer of the atmosphere.
Hotest layer of the atmosphere.
Least dense layer
Has the Ionosphere
The outer layer of the thermosphere, extending outward into space.
Extends beyond the thermosphere, as the thinning.
Connects with the magnetic fields and radiation belts of space.
Satellites orbit here
a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance; a very high, large wave in the ocean that is usually caused by an earthquake under the sea and that can cause great destruction when it reaches land
Destruction of forests
Blocks harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun from reaching the Earth's surface.
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
1. Clastic- sandstone.
2. Chemical- gypsum, rock salt, and some limestone.
3. Organic- coal
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
a repeated series of events by which rock gradually and continually changes between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic forms
magma or lava cools (Igneous rock) > exposed to weather sedimentary rock > exposed to heat and pressure metaphoric rock > melting of rock becomes magma or lava
A naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystalline structure, color, and hardness.
gypsum used in drywall
quartz used in windows of a home
talc body powder
the alternating rise and fall in sea level by the gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun
the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of living matter; Natural processes that recycle nutrients within the biosphere.
The amount of water vapor in the air
The temperature at which condensation begins
a group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity.
A large spiral galaxy that is home to Earth and the rest of our solar system, and about a trillion stars.
New moon, crescent moon, half moon, gibbous moon, full moon
Phases of the moon
describes the appearance of two full moons in one month
0 moons - Mercury, Venus
1 moon - Earth
many moons- Jupiter, Saturn
Planets that have no moons? 1 moon? Many moons?
small, airless rocky worlds that revolve around the sun and are too small to be called planets; primordial material left over from the formation of the Solar System
pieces of stone-like or metal-like debris which travels in outer space
small icy objects traveling through space
celestial body that orbits a planet; a moon; an artificial body placed in orbit around the earth or moon or another planet in order to collect information or for communication.
tilting of the Earth
Science thinking skills
Exploration (described by Piaget)
Best teaching practice in teaching science
5 learning cycles
drawing reasonable conclusions.
Science as inquiry
level 1- knowledge
level 2 - comprehension
level 3 - application
level 4 - analysis
level 5 - synthesis
level 6 - evaluation
no yes or no questions
use "wh" words
Key questioning terms
the integration of social science and humanities concepts for the purpose of practicing problem solving and decision making for developing citizenship skills on critical social issues
Study of the earth
It is the study of all aspects of human kind, biological, cultural, and linguistic, past and present, throughout the world, using a holistic approach. It is mostly concerned with human culture, as well as the physical and social characteristics that create that culture. Often it will compare one group of humans to another or even compare humans with animals.
the integrated study of human behavior, especially the study of the origins, organization, institutions, and development of human society to promote civic competence
Location - absolute and relative
Movement and connections
Regions, patterns, and processes
5 themes of geography
is a special-purpose map made to show geological features. Shows rocks by colors.
type of map that includes altitudes (heights above or below sea level) and landforms
characteristics of maps
help measure longitude
run east - west help measure latitude
map that shows boundaries, counties, cities, towns, churches, schools, and other representations of government and people.
Reasons for movement of people
characteristics of anthropology
earliest know humans
lived in Africa 3-4 millions years ago
the biological species to which modern human beings belong
Paleolithic period (Old Stone Age)
-Earliest period of human development
-Lived in groups of 10-20
-Made tools and weapons from stones and bones of the animals they killed
-Took shelter in caves
Mesolithic period (Middle Stone Age)
-humans began domesticating crops and shifting away from solely relying on hunting
-started planting and harvesting some crops
-began to stay in one play for longer periods
Neolithic period (New Stone Age)
-humans engaged in systematic agriculture and began domesticating animals
-lived in towns and cities
-development of crafts
-marked the end of the pre-historic period
-means between two rivers
-"Cradle of Civilization"
-earliest known civilizations
-invented some of the first known accounts of writing, the wheel, plow, irrigation systems, and sailboats
-pyramids were built
-came under the successive control of the Assyrians; the Persians; Alexander the Great; and finally the Roman Empire
-developed papyrus and made many medical advances
about 800-500 BCE this group of people were organized around the polis or city-state. Oligarchs controlled most of the polis until near the end of the 6th century, when individuals holding absolute power (tyrants) replaced them. By the end of the 6th century, democratic governments replaced many tyrants.
-The Age of reason and revolution in philosophy
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
philosophers who emphasized the individual and attainment of excellence through rhetoric, grammar, music, and mathematics.
the philosopher who criticized the Sophists and emphasized a process of questioning, or dialogue.
-the Philosopher who, like Socrates, emphasized ethics; he was critized by his pupil Aristotle, who argued that ideas or forms did not exist outside of things
-founded in 753 BCE
-Pompey and Julius Caesar emerged as the most powerful men during this period
-after Caesar was assassinated, his nephew Octavian ruled
-Christianity was the empire's official religion
-led by Emperor Theodosius II who divided the empire between his two sons, one ruled the east and one ruled the west
-leading city of the empire was Constantinople
1. There is one god and Mohammed is his prophet
2. The faithful must pray 5 times a day
3. You must perform charitable acts
4. You must fast from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan
5. You must make a haj (pilgrimage) to Mecca
5 Pillars of Muslim Faith
114 suras (verses) and contains Mohammed's teachings.
believe they are Mohammed's true successors
oral traditions about the prophet
Buddha (in India)
advocated two levels of aspirations:
1. a monastic life that renounced the work
2. a high, but not to difficult, morality for the layperson
peaceful farmers in the area now know as Nigeria
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, this town became a major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
beautifully made pottery
-"Children of the sun"
-advanced civilization in South America
culture in the south western United States and northern Mexico
developed adobe architecture
had a highly developed system of irrigation
made cloth and baskets
Charles the Great (Charlemagne)
-founded the Carolingian dynasty; King of the Franks in Germany; emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Verdun
When the son of Charles the Great died this treaty allowed his three sons to agree upon the division of the land into three parts; formed independent states of Europe
-the economic portion of the feudal system in which Kings exchanged labor for access to land
-the first member of a monastic order to rise to the papacy
-first pope to rule as the secular head of Rome
-centralized church administration
-great writer and ruler
William the Conqueror
-duke of Normandy or Norman King of England
-he helped the Normans conquer England in the Battle of Hastings in 1066
-introduced feudalism to England
-developed by the Japanese, it was a way of organizing society by hierarchy or rank
-based on land ownership. The more land that one controlled, the more wealth and power one had.
-held lands in exchange for military service
-Emperor: figure head who lacked "real" power
-Shogun: much like a general; the most powerful of all the daimyo
-Daimyo: owners of land
-Peasants (serfs): poor people/farmers
Magna Carta Libertatum
because many kings abused their rights during this time period, the Barons with the help of the church pressured King John 1 to sign a bill of rights of limited English monarchy
group of people who invaded Russia in 1221 and completed the conquest in 1245; cut contact with the west for almost a century.
A series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclaim control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile reason and faith and to instruct Christians on how to make sense of the pagan tradition
1331 - 1430 A popular name for the bubonic plague and one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of 25-40 percent of the European population
was a Florentine writer whose Divine Comedy, describes a journey through hell, purgatory, and heaven.
Leonardo de Vinci
a true renaissance man, artist, and inventor. He painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper and had a variety of interests.
(1475-1564) Italian Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet; he sculpted the Pieta and the David, and he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The ceiling shows sweeping scenes from the Old Testament of the Bible.
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
-beginning in 1517, destroyed western Europe's religious unity and introduced new ideas about the relationships among God, the individual, and society
-City of Geneva was the center of this period
-leader of the Protestant Reformation
-sought to reform the church
-believed that justification by faith alone was the road to salvation
-wrote 95 theses about indulgences
1509-1564. French theologian. Emphasized the doctrine of predestination which indicated that God knew who would obtain salvation before they were born
-believed that church and state should unite
Thirty years war
-a religious war between the Catholics and Protestants, which resulted in the political restructuring of Europe and the development of nation states - the Dutch Republic and the Austro-Hungarian Empire
-granted religious freedom in many parts of Europe and encouraged the secularization of government
The age of enlightenment or age of reason
A broad intellectual movement in 18th‐century Europe that advocated the use of reason in the re‐evaluation of accepted ideas.
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "i think therefore i am"; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism
Benedict de Spinoza
This 17th-century Dutch thinker argued that all matter is a part of God -- God did not just create the universe - he was the universe (pantheism)
pioneered the empiricist approach to knowledge; he stressed the importance of the environment in human development. Classified knowledge as either according to reason, contrary to reason, or above reason. He thought reason and revelation were complementary and from God.
French Revolution (Revolution of 1789)
the movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax there in 1789. Sparked by the Enlightenment, it was an uprising in France against the monarchy from 1789 to 1799 which resulted in the establishment of France as a republic
Louis XVI and Marie Antionette
King and Queen of France during French Revolution; was tried for treason against liberty; executed, ending absolute rule in England
1769-1821. French military and political leader; a tyrant who repressed and exploited for France's glory and advantage
-betrayed the ideals of the Revolution
-was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815
The Industrial Revolution
-a period of transition when machines began to displace human and animal power in methods of producing and distributing goods and when an agricultural and commercial society became more factory job dependent
-led to the growth of canal systems, macadam roads (Scott John McAdam), steamboats (Robert Fulton), and railways (George Stephenson)
Evidence of the Industrial Revolution
1. great economic growth bringing about the age of discovery and exploration
2. scientific Revolution - mechanical inventions and technological advances
3. increase in population in Europe
4. nineteenth-century political and social revolutions which rises the middle class
A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Intellectuals and theorists in the early 19th century who favored equality in social and economic conditions and wished to replace private property and competition with collective ownership and cooperation
Scientific socialism or Marxism
belief based on communism and inevitability. Believes that
1. economic factors determines all human history
2. there has always been a class struggle between the wealthy and poor
3. the theory of surplus value
4. socialism is inevitable
A viking who was swept off course sailing from Norway to Greenland landing in Canada and then to Newfoundland and maybe to New England; first European to step foot in the New World
Prince Henry the Navigator
-Ruler of Portugal
-Sent others to explore for him (sponsored voyages)
-created the very first explorer school
-first person to value exploring
Ferdinand and Isabella
During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.
date in which
Nina, Pinta, and the Santa Maria
three trips before landing on Plymouth rock
1454-1512 AD Italian explorer and navigator who, upon exploring the American mainland and the South American coast, concluded that Columbus' discovery was actually a new world. It was named "America" in his honor.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
(1480?-1521) Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year HRE Charles V became empreor.); killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
A conquistador who conquered the Incas in Peru and helped to begin more advances in South America. Miners, farmers, priests, friars and missionaries went to South America after it was conquered by the conquistadores.
World War I
(1914 - 1918) European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States defeated the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria. Differences in foreign policies were to blame, although the immediate cause was the assassination of Austria's Archduke Ferdinand. Resulted in the defeat of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman, and Russia.
World War II
(1939 - 1945) A war fought in Europe, Africa, and Asia between the Allied Powers of Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
1945-1991, A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Prompted by labor unrest, personal liberties, and elected representatives, this political revolution occurred in 1917 when Czar Nicholas II was murdered and Vladimir Lenin sought control to implement his ideas of socialism.
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope; a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.
Study of how societies decide what to produce, how to produce it, and how to distribute what they produce
supply and demand
an economic concept that states that the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it and depending on how much of the good is available
scarcity and choice
limited goods and services, nothing freely available, restricts options and forces decision
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
Concentrates on the operation of a nation's economy as a whole.
Study of individual consumers and businesses.
Economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference
Federal Reserve System
The country's central banking system, which is responsible for the nation's monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates
A general and progressive increase in prices
A decrease in the general level of prices.
Federal Income tax system
based on self assessment and voluntary compliance with tax law (promotes conveience). Taxpayers determine in privacy the amount of their income, deductions, and tax due (considered correct unless IRS detects an error). Relies on honesty and integrity of taxpayers
the land, labor, capital, and entrepreneuraial ability used in the production of goods and services
People using efforts, knowledge, and skills at work to produce goods and services
Financial institutions that accept deposits and make loans; only the investors have voting priviledges
Established originally by large organizations, trades, and other large employment groups. The facility operates for the benefit of their "members", are not-for-profit corporations
A system for buying and selling shares of companies
economic systems in which the government largely decides what goods and services will be produced, who will get them, and how the economy will grow
things are done the way they have always been done; economic decisions are based on custom or habit; they are slow to change and not well-equipped to propel a society of growth; most poorer countries use this system
Economic systems in which some allocation of resources is made by the market and some by the government
economies based on the private ownership of property and the investment of capital for the purpose of making a profit
economic systems in which the means of production, along with most natural resources, are publicly or collectively owned rather than privately owned; resources are under control of the government
A measure of how well or how productively resources are used to achieve a goal; when a society produces the types and quantities of goods and services that most satisfy its people
A condition in which the distribution of goods and services conforms to a society's notion of fairness
A simplification of economic reality used to make predictions about the real world; explains why economic phenomenas occur
English explorer who claimed Newfoundland for England while looking for Northwest Passage; this was the first European encounter with the mainland of North America
An English explorer employed by the Dutch. He claimed the Hudson River around present day New York and called it New Netherland. He also had the Hudson Bay (James Bay at the time) named for him. He laid the foundation for Dutch Colonization.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, he sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
the Jamestown settlement
-initially the settlers lacked the skills and refused to do the work necessary to survive because they had other goals.
-in the spring the river produced diseases such as typhoid, dysentery, and malaria. Most died the first year.
-in 1607, it became the first permanent English settlement in North America
Captain John Smith
Admiral of New England, an English soldier, sailor, and author. This person is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father, Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
An Indian chief who dominated the peoples in the Virginia area during the Jamestown Colonization. All the tribes loosely under his control came to be called his confederacy. Father to Pocahontas.
A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powhatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; about 1595-1617; her brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.
Virginia's first "official" governor. wrecked on Bermuda. When his ship reached Jamestown in 1610, he found most settlers had died.
Took over as governor after John Smith was not productive enough,
London merchant who suggested that the Virginia Company form a joint-stock company and have colonists send back fish, furs, and timber in return for passage and supplies
The Great Awakening
-a period beginning in the 1730s in which several well-known preachers traveled through British North America giving speeches and arguing for the need to revive religious piety and closer relationships with God
-divided religion in America by making distinctions between revivalists and traditionalist
-American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
-best known preacher during the Great Awakening
(1473-1543) A Polish clergyman who began the revolution in astronomy by publishing his treatise on The Revolution of the Celestial Spheres. He claimed the Earth and the planets revolved around the sun which had a simpler mathematical explanation.
Sir Isaac Newton
(1643-1727) an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher; believed to be one of the greatest figures of the Scientific Revolution; in 1687 he published his theory of gravity and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
minister, part of Puritan New England important families, a scholar, one of first Americans to promote vaccination of smallpox when it was believed to be dangerous, strongly believed in witches, encouraged witch trials in Salem.
The Sugar Act (Revenue Act)
A law passed by Parliament in 1764 that put a three-cent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee, indigo, and certain kinds of wine. It banned importation of rum and French wines. These taxes affected only a certain part of the population, but the affected merchants were very vocal. Besides, the taxes were enacted (or raised) without the consent of the colonists. This was one of the first instances in which colonists wanted a say in how much they were taxed.
The Stamp Act
(1765) British parliamentary measure to tax the American colonies. To pay for costs resulting from the French and Indian War, the British sought to raise revenue through a stamp tax on printed matter. A common revenue device in England, the tax was vigorously opposed by the colonists, whose representatives had not been consulted. Colonists refused to use the stamps, and mobs intimidated stamp agents. The Act forced Congress, with representatives from nine colonies meeting to petition Parliament to repeal the act. Faced with additional protests from British merchants whose exports had been reduced by colonial boycotts, Parliament repealed the act (1766)
1766- Passed by Parliament the day the Stamp Act was repealed. Stated that British Parliament had the right to rule and tax the colonies.
The Tea Act
An act passed by British Parliament that required American colonists to buy tea from the British East India Company. Colonial merchants were angry because they felt cheated by the British government. Colonists felt the British were violating their right to free enterprise.
Governor of Boston who, in 1773 against the advice of both houses of the legislature, insisted that a shipment of imported tea be landed before being given clearance papers; this resulted in the Boston Tea Party, in which dissidents dumped the import into the harbor.
The Boston Tea Party
A result of the Tea Act. This occurred when members of the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Mohawk Indians and threw British tea into the harbor as a protest to the Tea Act
The Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
a series of British measures passed in 1774 and designed to punish the Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party. For example, one of the laws closed the port of Boston until the colonists paid for the tea that they had destroyed.
The First Continental Congress
(1774) Delegates from 12 Colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to decide on action, if any, against Britain should be taken.
The War for Independence (American Revolutionary War)
The Battle at Lexington and Concord
British went after the resistance with orders to do anything necessary to prove their point. A complete system was set up to warn the resistance of their presence (Paul Revere and William Dawes). Ended Britain's control of the 13 colonies of America.
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in sixty seconds
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
King George III
King of England during the American Revolution
Olive Branch Petition
A document sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III, proposing a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain
this document cut off all trade between the colonies and England AND removed the colonies from the "King's Protection"
was crossed on Christmas night 1776 increases success of the war by catching the British soldiers off guard and hung over from their party.
The Treaty of Paris
It was a peace treaty at the end of the American Revolution that said that the British looked at America as a free country. It also said that the Americans had to pay back the loyalists for all the property they had broken.
The 1790s were known as the Federalist Era because they were dominated by two Federalist presidents (Washington and Adams) and saw the power of the central government increase. It also saw the formation of the two-party system in American politics.
(1797-1801) The 11th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1798. Washington D.C. becomes America's official capitol in 1800., He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt
..., Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
American statesman, political theorist and the fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
The Alien Act
Allowed president to expel any foreigner thought to be dangerous to the country.
The Sedition Act
created to control against publishing bad things about the government, but allowed for using truth as a defense
The Jeffersonian Era
which era included THE ELECTION OF 1800 was the founding event of this era. The election was between Thomas Jefferson and Samuel Adams. The election was close, but because of the 3/5 clause the Federalists: Samuel Adams was given the advantage and because one vote was cast for Aaron Burr and one for Jefferson making the Federalists king of the House. The VP was whomever came in second; there were no running mates. There was no president for quite some time with so many ties being made, but James Bayard put it all to an an end. If he hadn't Delaware would've been in trouble. As a result of this election THE TWELFTH AMENDMENT was created which gave each elector in the Electoral College one vote for president and one for vice president.
one of the leading Democratic-Republicans of New york, and served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton's Federalist policies. In the election of 1800, he tied with Jefferson in the Electoral College. The House of Representatives awarded the Presidency to Jefferson and made him Vice- President.
The Louisiana Purchase
- The United States purchased Louisiana from the French in 1803 for an amazing bargain of only $15 million. This is significant because the 828,000 square miles that made up the Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the entire United States at that time.
The Monroe Doctrine
A key foreign policy made by President Monroe in 1823. It declared the western hemisphere off limits to new European colonization and in return, the US promised not to meddle in European affairs.
The Marshall Court
The Growth of Judicial Review under John Marshall between 1801-1835. Examples: Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland and Barron v. Baltimore., Marshall was the chief justice of the supreme court from 1801-1835. He sat over DartmouthCollege vs. Woodward. Confirmed the "implied powers" of the constitustion in McCulloch vs. Maryland.
The Missouri Compromise
1820 agreement calling for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and outlawing slavery in future states to be created north of the 36, 30 parallel
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme., this term describes the spirit of the age led by Andrew Jackson. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Party, led by Jackson appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Trail of Tears
(AJ) , The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
The Antislavery Movement
abolitionist group appears, they fought for the eradication of slavery on moral grounds. South American like Chile, Mexico, Bolivia stopped slavery.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Jim Crow laws
A law that separated black and white people in most public places; became the name for any law that enforced segregation in schools, restaurants, railroad cars, and other public places
(1845) a doctrine to support territorial expansion based on popular beliefs that population growth demanded it, that God supported it, and that it = expansion of freedom
The Mexican War
(JP) 1846-1848 , Mexico broke relations with USA after annexation of Texas. Also, dispute over boundary of Texas (Rio Grande or Nueces River?) Americans interested in New Mexico and California, as well. Polk sent Slidell to try and buy off the Mexicans... they wouldn't budge.Polk ordered Taylor to move army across Nueces River to the Rio Grande- stayed stationed for a while,finally Mexicans crossed river and attacked "MEXICANS" started the war (NOT). America got New Mexico and California, ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854; sponsored by Senator Stephen Douglas, this would rip open the slavery debate; and create the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries.
The Dred Scott Decision
Supreme Court decision in 1857 that ruled that slaves were property, not people, and Congress did not have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory.
The Civil War
(1861-1865) - A major war within the United States between (the Union) northern states and eleven Southern states (the Confederates) which secessed from the Union over states rights and slavery issues and formed the Confederate States of America under direction from Jefferson Davis. This war resulted in the southern states losing and being re-instated into the Union and the abolishment of slavery.
The Homestead Act
passed in 1862,the law offered 160 acres of land free for anyone who agreed to live on and improve the land for 5 years- only $10 fee
The Emancipation Proclamation
Document written by Abraham Lincoln which freed the slaves in the states that were in rebellion. This changed the reason why the war was fought from preserving the Union to freeing the slaves.
Civil Rights Act
1964; banned discrimination in public accommodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Ratified 1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
The Spanish-American War
Started with the blowing up of the Main battleship in Havana harbor that killed 166 American sailors. U.S. government blamed Spain and issued an ultimatum that the Spanish evacuate Cuba and they did. On May 1, 1898 U.S. warships destroyed Spanish fleet at Manila in Philippines. Two months later U.S. navy sank Spanish Atlantic fleet off Santiago, Cuba and in mid-August Spain was suing for peace
(1903) treaty that granted the US land to build the Panama canal in exchange for $10 million and annual payments to Panama. Occured shortly after Panama's independance.
(1905) W.E.B. Du Bois and other young activists, who did not believe in accommodation, came together at Niagara Falls in 1905 to demand full black equality. Demanded that African Americans get right to vote in states where it had been taken away, segregation be abolished, and many discriminatory barriers be removed. Declared commitment for freedom of speech, brotherhood of all peoples, and respect for workingman
Emergency Quota Act
A government legislation that limited the number of immigrants from Europe which was set at 3% of the nationality currently in the U.S. It greatly limited the number of immigrants who could move to the U.S. And it reflected the isolationist and anti-foreign feeling in America as well as the departure from traditional American ideals.
The National Origins Act
The act of Congress which set severe limitations of the number of new immigrants who would be allowed to enter the United States annually.
The Great Depression
This economic event is notable for its duration and intensity that struck the world from 1929-1933. Recovery was a long and difficult process.
October 24, 1929, the day the stock market crashed an astounding 9 percent (after a decade of great prosperity); a signal (though not the only cause) of the Great Depression
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
Hoover's Depression Policies
Hoover felt it wasn't the Governments place to try and fix the Depression. He felt the depression would fix itself and people individually could work itself out
The Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Worst thing Hoover signed - highest trade tariff ever - stopping foreign trade
The Federal Home Loan Bank Act
Passed in July 1932, created home-loan banks, made loans to building and loan associations, saving banks, and insurance companies to help them avoid foreclosures on homes.
The First New Deal
Primarily focused on relief, targeted the unemployed, faced more criticism, many programs found unconstitutional, FDR created programs to help pull the country out of the Depression. During the Hundred Days, Congress passed 15 major acts, known as
The Second New Deal
This was another period of massive legislation to improve the American economy. However, this one was aimed at ordinary people, and it provided more social welfare.
The Banking Act
written in 1933 was a law that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in the United States and introduced banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation. It is most commonly known as the Glass-Steagall Act, after its legislative sponsors, Carter Glass and Henry B. Steagall."
The Public Works Administration
concentrated on construction of large scale publics works like dams and bridges. contributed to a revival of us industry
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.
The National Industrial Recovery Act
tried to balance the economy through sensible planning. They made industry-wide codes that spelled out fair practices and regulate wages, working conditions, production and prices. They set a minimum wage and gave organized labor collective bargaining rights. Soon businesses said the codes were too complicated and it was too rigid.
Rural Electrification Administration
an administration to create affordable electricity would improve the standard of living and the economic competitiveness of the family farm; created to bring electricity to rural areas like the Tennessee Valley; many opposed
The Social Security Act
written by Frances Perkins. Established a permanent system of universal retirement pensions (Social Security), unemployment insurance, and welfare benefits for the handicapped and needy children in families without father present. Established the framework for the U.S. welfare system.
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Committee for Industrial Organization
The new union of a committee during the Industrial revolution that organized large numbers of unskilled workers with the help of the Wagner Act and the National Labor Relations Board
The Road to Pearl Harbor
Japan signed the Tripartite Pact, a loose defensive alliance with Germany and Italy that seemed to extend the Axis into Asia. Roosevelt displayed his animosity toward Japanese policies by harshly denouncing their continuing assault on China and by terminating a longstanding American commercial treaty with the Tokyo government. Japan made out like it would do what the U.S. said, but instead Japan sent diplomats to Washington to discuss a peace also while sending bombers to attack Pearl Harbor. That was on December 7th, on December 11th the Axis powers declared war on the U.S. and the U.S. declared war back.
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
The Atomic Bomb
developed by the Manhattan Project. Japan refused to surrender, so Truman gave the order to use atomic bomb. dropped on Hiroshima. it flattened the city. US dropped another on Nagasaki
(HT) , 1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
was a movement to stop the spread of communism and communist ideas
..., The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
When Kruchev tried to build nuclear bases in Cuba, the two superpowers were brought to the brink of war. This base was just 90 miles away from Florida and was a threat to the US. In 1962, President Kennedy declared a naval blockade of Cuba. In the end, Kruchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.
Kennedy's New Frontier
this program was intended to boost the economy, provide international aid, provide for national defense, and to boost the space program.
The Bay of Pigs
an unsuccessful attempted invasion by armed Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba, planned and funded by the United States, in an attempt to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. This action accelerated a rapid deterioration in Cuban-American relations, which was further worsened by the Cuban Missile Crisis the following year.
Lee Harvey Oswald
On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas; he was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.
1964 Civil Rights Act
This act prohibited Discrimination because of race, color, sex, religion, or national origin by employers or labor unions; The adoption by voting registrars of different standards for black and white applicants; and Racial or religious discrimination in public accommodations.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
An African-American Civil Right's Activist who was peaceful. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his cause. He was assassinated in 1968 in Tennessee
..., a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Americans who supported the Vietnam War.
Americans who opposed the Vietnam War.
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security guard foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committee Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
The Iranian Crisis
In 1978, a revolution forced the shah of Iran to flee the country, replacing with a religious leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. After the exiled shah came to the U.S. for medical treatment in October 1979, some 400 Iranians broke into the American embassy in Teheran on Nov. 4, taking the occupants captive, requiring that the shah be returned for trial. Carter rejected and froze Iranian assets in the U.S. and a trade embargo. After extensive negotiations with Iran, in which Algeria acted as an intermediary, the American hostages were freed on January 20, 1981.
Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian government, the, scandal included arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved
The Persian Gulf Crisis
On August 2, 1990, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein invaded oil-rich Kuwait with 100,000 men, hoping to annex it as a 19th province and use its oil fields to replenish debts incurred during the Iraq-Iran War. the UN responded, placing economic embargoes on the aggressor and preparing for military punishment.
The North American Free Trade Agreement
a trade treaty between the United States, Canada, and Mexico designed to lower and eliminate tariffs
1992 and 1996; Democrat; Don't Ask Don't Tell policy implemented by Congress, Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, Travel gate controversy; Operation Desert Fox (4 day bombing campaign in Iraq); Scandals: Whitewater controversy, Lewinsky scandal (impeached and acquitted), Travel gate controversy, Trooper gate; first balanced budget since 1969
Crisis in the Balkans
this would all start because of the fall of the ottoman empire. Austria-Hungary and Russia saw there chance to take this. Austria-Hungary would annex Bosnia and Herzegovina and this would cause a lot of controversy, this was known as ---. the problem was that Serbia wanted Bosnia and Herzegovina to form a Slavic speaking kingdom.
George W. Bush
1946 - 43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives
A form of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern in the interests of all
Ruled by one
Autocracy, Monarchy, and Dictatorship
Ruled by few
group of influential people takes control of the government; these people appoint one of their own to function as the supreme leader of the government; theocracy, aristocracy, oligarchy, military
Ruled by many
A form of government where the citizens of the nation become the government. In practice the citizens elect members to represent them and become the government.
Democracy, Constitutional Democracy, Parliamentarian Monarchy, and Federal Republic
President and Vice President
President is the commander -in -chief of the armed forces
appoints cabinet member
nominates judges to the federal court system
has the power to veto legislation
the federal court system and all the way down
Their function is to interpret the Constitution, resolve conflicts among states, and interpret laws and treaties.
Congress: Senate (2 per state) and House of Representatives (population per state)
Congress makes laws of the nation, collects taxes, coins money, and regulates the jurisdictions of federal courts, and can override the presidential vetoes.
System of checks and balances
Constitutional system in which each branch of government places limits on the power of other branches
Judicial review process
1) Congress passes bill 2) President signs the Bill into law (if pres. agrees w/ bill) 3) Bill can be challenged by a person or group in society 4) Bill is removed if the court sees the bill as unconstitutional
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the Constitution, drafted by Madison, placed limitations of government and protects natural rights.
1. separation of church and state; freedom of religion, speech and press; and the right to peaceful assembly
2.rights to keep and bear arms
3. made it illegal to force people to offer quarters to soldiers in time of peace.
r. rights to privacy and unreasonable searches or seizures
5. rights to due process, protection against self-incrimination, and protection from being indicated for the same crime twice (double jeopardy)
6.rights to speedy public trial by an impartial jury and to counsel for one's defense
7. right to sue
8. protection against cruel and unusual punishment
9. enumeration of specific rights in the Constitution cannot be taken as a way to deny other rights retained by the people.
10.rights to delegated to the federal government by the Constitution are reserved to the states or to the people.
The Declaration of Independence
An act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were "Free and Independent States" and that "all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved."
Articles of Confederation
A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War.
The United States Constitution
It is the shortest and oldest written constitution of any major sovereign; adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was ratified in 1798. The document defines the three main branches of the government: The legislative branch with a bicameral Congress. Besides providing for the organization of these branches, the Constitution carefully outlines which powers each branch may exercise. It also reserves numerous rights for the individual states, thereby establishing the United States' federal system of government.
The Declaration of Causes of Seceding States
Southern states wrote dissolving their political connection with the Federal Government of the US. Ceded to join the Confederation of States
The Gettysburg Address
President Abe Lincoln gave a speech to dedicate a cemetery for the Union soldiers who died in battle. He spoke of ideas of liberty and equality on which the nation was founded. He honored soldiers who died for their beliefs.
The Declaration of War on Japan
This speech, given to the United States Congress, is often referred to as Roosevelt's Infamy Speech because President Franklin D, Roosevelt declared war on Japan with these words"a date which will line in infamy..."
reason, empire of Japan's naval and air forces attacked first
Reverend Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech
steps at Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C.
during a march on Washington for jobs and freedom
symbol for civil rights
ranked at the top American speeches in the 20th century
"I have a dream...."