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Bio 203 Lab Ch. 13
Terms in this set (33)
technique for listening to heart sounds is _______
The first sounds heard are the result of the closing of the ___________, and the second sounds are due to the closing of the ________________.
S1 corresponds to the onset of _________ systole and S2 the onset of ventricular __________
4 factors that affect cardiac output
in order, the components of the electrical signal through the cardiac conduction system
1. SA node
2. atrial myocardium
3. AV node
4. bundle of HIS
5. right and left bundle branches
6. purkinje fibers
7. ventricular myocardium
occurs when the tricuspid valve or mitral valves do not close properly during systole (causes blood to regurgitate into the corresponding atrium)
occurs when the aortic or pulmonic valves do not close properly (blood regurgitates into the ventricles during ventricular diastole)
stroke volume eqn:
SV = EDV - ESV
(ex: 80 ml/beat)
pulse pressure eqn:
PP = sys - dis
(ex: 60 mmHg)
mean blood pressure eqn:
MAP = DAP + (1/3)(PP)
MAP = TPR x CO
(ex: 85 mmHg)
Cardiac output eqn:
CO = HR x SV
(ex: 5.6 L/min)
Total peripheral resistance eqn:
TPR = MAP/CO
(ex: 15.2 mmHg/L/min)
ejection fraction eqn:
EF = SV/EDV
The carotid arteries supply the head and neck region while the subclavian on each side branches into the_________ . From there, blood flows into the brachial of the upper arm, then into the ___________ (thumb side) and __________ (pinkie side) of the lower arm.
Which blood vessel type is the main determinant of the resistance from the vascular circuit?
calculate mean arterial pressure (MAP), total peripheral resistance(TPR) and heart rate(HR) in this order.
BP = 130/80
CO = 5.5 L/min
SV = 110 ml/beat
MAP = DAP + (1/3)(50) = 96.67 mmHg)
TPR = MAP/CO = 96.67/5.5 = 17.58 mmHg/L/min
HR = CO/SV = 5,500ml/110ml = 50 bpm
When blood leaves the left ventricle through the aorta, it passes through the _____ valve.
Through which structure does the wave of depolarization pass from when leaving the atria into the bundle of His?
Where are the stretch receptors for the baroreceptor reflex located?
There are four factors the affect cardiac output. They are: Preload- which is equal to the amount of blood returning to the heart. This is also known as the ______________. Afterload- ____________ to ejection of blood from the ventricles. Heart Rate Myocardial Contractility- Strength of contraction. This can be increased by a number of factors- _____________ intracellular and/or extracellular calcium and by the release of _____________ and _____________.
1. Starling's Law of the Heart
of the 6 types of blood vessels, which allow for gas exchange?
Blood enters into the right atrium mainly via two blood vessels, the ____________ and the _____________.
superior vena cava
inferior vena cava
another name for the visceral pericardium is the
for the left ventricle, the resistance to ejection is affected by the:
1. pressure in the aorta
2. total peripheral resistance
3. pathological changes
starling's Law of the Heart
force of contraction and cardiac output increases with increasing preload until the cardiac muscle fibers in the myocardium are overstretched and Starling's law fails. ensures that the heart pumps out the same volume of blood that it receives from the veins.
myocardial contractility is increased by a number of factors
1. norepinephrine and epinephrine
2. increased extracellular calcium
the electrocardiogram can be recorded through any one of twelve leads
- 3 standard limb leads (wrists and left leg)
- 6 chest ones
- 3 other leads are referred to as augmented leads
depolarization o the atria, indicates S-A node function. the onset of the P wave precedes the onset of atrial contraction.
indicative of the time it takes for the impulses to pass through the A-V node into the ventricles
depolarization of the ventricles - indicates the time in which ventricular depolarization occurs. The onset of the QRS wave precedes the onset of ventricular contraction
repolarization of the ventricles, at which time they are ready to be stimulated again
the part of the electrocardiogram between the S wave of the QRS complex and the T wave- its elevation or depression with respect to the baseline can be important in diagnosing a myocardial infarction
one complete cardiac cycle
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