APUSH Chapter 1
Terms in this set (34)
a Native American Empire who lived in Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshipped everything around them especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521.
The ____________ lived in the Southwestern United States. They built extensive irrigation systems to water their primary crop, which was corn. Their houses were multi-storied buildings made of adobe.
joint stock companies
These were developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Ex. London Company and Plymouth Company.
"Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel; marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance.
The idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease while the English did not. It is a false assertion that the Spanish were more evil towards the Native Americans than the English were.
Spanish explorers that invaded Central and South America for it's riches during the 1500's. In doing so they conquered the Incas, Aztecs, and other Native Americans of the area. Eventually they intermarried these tribes.
geological shape of North America; 10 million years ago; held the northeast corner of North America in place; the first part of North America to come above sea level.
highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present day Peru until it was conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. the Incas developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large, complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains
a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent
Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home t 25,000 native Americans
agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 AD; maize, beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields
in trading systems, those who operate between the original sellers and the retail merchants who sell to consumers. after the eleventh century, European exploration was driven in large part by a desire to acquire alluring Asian goods without paying heavy tolls to Muslim middlemen
small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. can sail more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey
large scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor
the transfer of goods, crops, and diseases between New and Old world societies after 1492
treaty of Tordesillas
signed by Spain and Portugal, dividing the territories of the New World, Spain received the bulk of the territory in the Americas, while Portugal got land in Africa and Asia
economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets. European colonization of the Americas, and in particular, the discovery of vast bulletin deposits, helped bring about Europe's transition to it
Spanish government's policy to "commend", or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland
"sad night", when the Aztecs attacked Hernan Cortes and his forces in the Aztec capital, Tenochitlan, killing hundreds. cortes laid siege to the city the following year, precipitating the dall of the Aztec Empire and inaugurating three centuries of Spanish rule
race of people created when the Spanish intermarried with the surviving Indians in Mexico.
Battle of Acoma
fought between Spaniards under Don Juan de Onate and the Pueblo Indians in present-day New Mexico. Spainiards brutally crushed the Pueblo peoples and established the territory as New Mexico in 1609
Pueblo Indian rebellion that drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico
Ferdinand of Aragon
He was king of Aragon and Sicily, and king of Naples. By his marriage to Isabella of Castile in 1469 he united Spain into a single power.
He established the Inquistion, conquered Granada from the Moslems in 1492, and backed the voyages of Columbus. In 1492 he orderd the expulsion of Jews and Moors from Spain.
Isabella of Castile
married to Ferdinand of Aragon and queen of Spain. She is known for sponsoring Columbus' voyage to the Americas, and for her role in "purifying" the Roman Catholic faith through expelling Jews and defeating the Moors.
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.
A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, he led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.
New World conqueror; Spanish conqueror who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532
Bartolome de Las Casas
Spanish missionary who was appalled by the econmienda system, he called it "a moral pestilence invented by Satan"
He was a Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.
Malienche (Dona Marina)
the female indian slave picked up by Hernando Cortes, knew both Mayan and Nahuatl, language of the Aztecs, learned Spanish and was baptized with the name _________
Aztec chieftan; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; Montezuma assumed that the Soanush were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.
Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot)
was sent by the English to explore the northeastern coast of North America in 1497 and 1498
Robert de La Salle
was responsible for naming Louisiana. He was the first European to float down the Mississippi river to the tip from Canada and upon seeing the beautiful river valley named Louisiana after his king Louis XIV in 1682.
Father Junipero Serra
Spanish missionary who founded Franciscan missions in California (1713-1784)