CELL1010 Final Exam

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tissuesWhen cells associate with each other they formoxygen isotopesOxygen ordinarily has 8 protons and 8 neutrons. Another rare from has 2 extra neutrons. These two forms arehigh specific heat and high heat of vaporizationWhat two properties of water help it moderate changes in temperature?hydrophobic exclusionsNonpolar molecules tend to aggregate in water because they are forced to come into close proximity with each other due to1 positive chargeSodium has 11 electrons arranged in three energy levels. The outer level has only one electron. In order to become stable, the atom loses an electron thus exposing the previous level with 8 electrons and subsequently becomes an ion withoilWhich of the following is least hydrophilic?the solution with a pH of 4 has a 200x higher concentration of H+ ions than a solution of pH 6Which of the following is TRUE when comparing solutions with a pH of 6 and a pH of 4?oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, leading to an unequal sharing of electronsWhy is water described as a polar molecule?double covalent bondWhere one oxygen shares two pairs of electrons with another oxygen atom, O2 is formed of a(n)secondary structureProtein motifs are considered a type ofamylopectinWhich of the following carbohydrates is associated with plants? A. glycogen B. amylopectin C. chitin D. none of the abovedehydration reactionsMacromolecules are assembled inamino acidsRelatively small organic molecules with a central carbon atom which is bonded to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a carbon-containing group, and a hydrogen atom are calledAll compounds made from carbon are soluble in water.Which of the following is not a property of carbon? A. It can form single, double, and even triple bonds with itself B. It can be be built into rings and long chains C. It constitutes the backbones of an incredible variety of molecules D. All compounds made from carbon are soluble in water E. All organic molecules contain carbon atoms-H2OAll of the following are examples of functional groups except A. -CH3 B. -COOH C. -H2O D. -NH2 E. -OHcellulose digesting enzymes are absentHumans are unable to get metabolic energy from cellulose becauseboth DNA and RNA can form double helicesDNA and RNA are similar is some respects and different in others, which of the following statements is not accurate about their similarities? A. both DNA and RNA nucleotides contain the nitrogen bases adenine, cytosine, and guanine B. both DNA and RNA can form double helices C. both DNA and RNA contain monosaccharide sugars on their respective nucleotides D. both DNA and RNA contain phosphate groups on their respective nucleotidesdenaturation; dissociation______________ is a process in which proteins lose their native shape and function, while _____________ is a process in which the subunits of a protein disengageisomers_______________ are molecules that have the same molecular composition but differ in structure and/or bonding associationcannot be synthesized by the organism, are necessary for survival and are therefore obtained through dietIn contrast to other fatty acids, essential fatty acidsmonosaccharides; glycosidicThe monomers of carbohydrates are ____________ and they are linked by polar covalent bonds commonly referred to as _______________ bonds.amino acidsThe peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall contains a carbohydrate matrix linked together by short chains of:C10H13O9What is the formula for a disaccharide of pentose sugars?Hormone response elements in the DNAThe steroid hormone receptor complex binds to thethe protein is denaturedWhen an egg is fried, what happens to the protein in the egg?nucleotideWhich one of the following is not bound by membranes? A. Endoplasmic reticulum B. Microbodies C. Golgi apparatus D. nucleotide E. nucleussmooth ERPhospholipid synthesis occurs in which organelle?Primary lysosomes have low levels of protons, while secondary lysosomes have high levels of protonsWhat is the difference between a primary lysosome and a secondary lysosome?plasma membranePhotosynthetic bacterial membranes are located in thecapsuleA bacterial cell may possess a ______________, which may protect it from the immune system of other multi-cellular organisms it may infect