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SOCI 1301 - Chapter 12 Review
Terms in this set (23)
a term that denotes the presence of physical or physiological differences between males and females.
a term that refers to social or cultural distinctions of behaviors that are considered male or female.
society's concept of how men and women should behave.
a condition listed in the DSM-5 in which people whose gender at birth is contrary to the one they identify with. This condition replaces "gender identity disorder".
an ideology and a set of institutional practices that privilege heterosexuals and heterosexuality over other sexual orientations.
an extreme or irrational aversion to homosexuals.
a person's physical, mental, emotional, and sexual attraction to a particular sex (male or female).
the prejudiced belief that one sex should be valued over another.
a person's deeply held internal perception of his or her gender.
a person's capacity for sexual feelings.
an adjective that describes individuals who identify with the behaviors and characteristics that are other than their biological sex.
transgender individuals who attempt to alter their bodies through medical interventions such as surgery and hormonal therapy.
the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of other people, as well as to history in general and societal structures in particular.
Defense of Marriage Act, a 1996 U.S. law explicitly limiting the definition of "marriage" to a union between one man and one woman and allowing each individual state to recognize or deny same-sex marriages performed in other states.
the concept that prohibits premarital sexual intercourse for women but allows it for men.
an interdisciplinary approach to sexuality studies that identifies Western society's rigid splitting of gender into male and female roles and questions its appropriateness.
Why do sociologists find gender a useful concept?
Characteristics of gender, on the other hand, may vary greatly between different societies. For example, in U.S. culture, it is considered feminine (or a trait of the female gender) to wear a dress or skirt. However, in many Middle Eastern, Asian, and African cultures, dresses or skirts (often referred to as sarongs, robes, or gowns) are considered masculine. The kilt worn by a Scottish male does not make him appear feminine in his culture. The dichotomous view of gender (the notion that someone is either male or female) is specific to certain cultures and is not universal. In some cultures gender is viewed as fluid.
What is the difference between the concepts of sex and gender? How does gender influence male/female "biological" differences?
Sex refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females, including both primary sex characteristics (the reproductive system) and secondary characteristics such as height and muscularity. Gender refers to behaviors, personal traits, and social positions that society attributes to being female or male. A person's sex, as determined by his or her biology, does not always correspond with his or her gender. Therefore, the terms sex and gender are not interchangeable. A baby boy who is born with male genitalia will be identified as male. As he grows, however, he may identify with the feminine aspects of his culture. Since the term sex refers to biological or physical distinctions, characteristics of sex will not vary significantly between different human societies.
What is gender identity? What is the difference between the meanings of transgender, transsexual, and homosexual identities?
Gender identity is a person's deeply held internal perception of his or her gender. Individuals who identify with the role that is the different from their biological sex are called transgender.Transgender individuals who attempt to alter their bodies through medical interventions such as surgery and hormonal therapy—so that their physical being is better aligned with gender identity—are called transsexuals. They may also be known as male-to-female (MTF) or female-to-male (FTM). Many homosexual males view both their sex and gender as male.
What are gender roles? How do they develop?
Gender role refers to society's concept of how men and women are expected to look/ how they should behave. Roles are based on norms, or standards, created by society.
What are the sociological explanations of gender stratification? What are some social factors involved? What is the happening worldwide in regards to gender stratification?
Stratification refers to a system in which groups of people experience unequal access to basic, yet highly valuable, social resources. The United States is characterized by gender stratification (as well as stratification of race, income, occupation, and the like). Evidence of gender stratification is especially keen within the economic realm. Despite making up nearly half (49.8 percent) of payroll employment, men vastly outnumber women in authoritative, powerful, and, therefore, high earning jobs (U.S. Census Bureau 2010). Even when a woman's employment status is equal to a man's, she will generally make only 77 cents for every dollar made by her male counterpart.
Compare and contrast the structural functional, the social conflict and symbolic interactionist approach to analyzing gender stratification, sex and sexuality. How do feminist theorists explain social and economic differences between men and women? What is the socialization perspective on gender differences? How does the socialization perspective explain gender differences?
Functionalists argue that gender roles were established well before the pre-industrial era when men typically took care of responsibilities outside of the home, such as hunting, and women typically took care of the domestic responsibilities in or around the home. According to conflict theory, society is a struggle for dominance among social groups (like women versus men) that compete for scarce resources. When sociologists examine gender from this perspective, we can view men as the dominant group and women as the subordinate group. Feminist theory is a type of conflict theory that examines inequalities in gender-related issues. It uses the conflict approach to examine the maintenance of gender roles and inequalities. women and men tend to work cooperatively rather than competitively regardless of whether a job is considered feminine by U.S. standards. Symbolic interactionism aims to understand human behavior by analyzing the critical role of symbols in human interaction. Because the meanings attached to symbols are socially created and not natural, and fluid, not static, we act and react to symbols based on the current assigned meaning.
How are sexism and racism alike? What is feminism?
men vastly outnumber women in authoritative, powerful, and, therefore, high earning jobs. Even when a woman's employment status is equal to a man's, she will generally make only 77 cents for every dollar made by her male counterpart. Women in the paid labor force also still do the majority of the unpaid work at home. On an average day, 84 percent of women (compared to 67 percent of men) spend time doing household management activities. This double duty keeps working women in a subordinate role in the family structure.
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