Terms in this set (44)
Written by Thomas Hobbes, states ethical laws don't originate from God but from groups.
English philosophe argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights
Believed that people are born selfish and evil and they need a strong central authority, specifically a monarchy, to keep an orderly society.
Philosopher that defended the freedom of thought and freedom of speech
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Baron de Montesquieu
Wrote The Spirit of the Laws : developed the idea of the separation of powers into three branches of government
Member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society
The notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
New intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Great philosopher who was passionately committed to individual freedom; argued that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness
Doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned
Two Treatises on Government
Book publish by John Locke. Set forth the idea that people have certain rights (life, liberty, and property) and the government is formed to protect those rights. Believed people are justified in rebelling if rights are violated
On the Spirit of Laws
Book wrote by Baron de Montisquieu
The Social Contract
Book wrote by Jean Jacques Rousseau
Book wrote by Voltaire
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
A new way of thinking about the natural world, based on careful observations, a willingness for people to question accepted beliefs
Clear and ordered thinking.
Major Enlightenment Ideas
1. Every social, political and economic problem could be solved through the use of reason
2. Governments are created to secure an orderly society
3. Separation of powers is the best way to protect human liberties
4. All men are created "free and equal"
5. A free market should be allowed to regulate trade
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "i think therefore i am"; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism
"I think, therefore I am!"
The famous statement made by the philosopher René Descartes
Educated people who think deeply about things.
A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
Laws that govern human nature
Life, Liberty, and Property
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
The doctrine that knowledge derives from experience
Limits the actions of the government by listing the powers they do not have
A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole. As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, the general will is identical to the rule of law.
Separation of Powers
A political idea, that power in government should be divided into separate branches in order to ensure that no one branch of a governing body can gain too much authority.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Treatise on Toleration
Book written by Voltaire which defined natural rights and advocated religious toleration that England had
A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets.
A humorous novel by Voltaire that slyly uses the tale to expose the corruption and hypocrisy of European society.
A grim medieval fortress in Paris used as a prison for political and other prisoners.
French philosopher and writer who servered as co-founder and chief editor of the encyclopedia
This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
Hands off. No government intervention in business.
Wealth of Nations
This is the 18th century book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies.
An unknown force or influence believed to be the cause of certain, often unfortunate, events
Believed that punishment should fit the crime, in speedy and public trials, and that capital punishment should be done away with completely
Gatherings of the social, political, and cultural elite in France during the Enlightenment
Enlightenment Changes Society
1. Women: Women were not equal and were criticized for attempting to gain equality
2. Salons: Men and women gather in living rooms to discuss Enlightenment ideas (chat rooms)
3. Music: Ballets and operas become popular (Bach, Handel, Mozart)
4. Art: Baroque gives way to rococo art (simple, elegant and charming)
5. Literature: Novels become popular (Robinson Cruesoe)