How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

22 terms

Hormones

STUDY
PLAY
Growth Hormone
Ant Pituitary
Stimulus:
Target: skeletal muscle cells; bone
Effects: growth, protein production, breakdown of fat for energy
Hypo: progeria (rare, severe); pituitary dwarfism in children
Hyper: gigantism in children; acromegaly in adults
Prolactin
Ant Pituitary
Stimulus: releasing hormone
Target: breast-secretory tissue (mammary gland)
Effects: milk production following childbirth
Hypo: poor milk production in women
Hyper: inappropriate milk production; impotence in males (males produce milk)
FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Ant Pituitary
Stimulus: releasing hormone
Target: ovaries and testes
Effects: stimulates sperm production; eggs ready for ovulation; regulates hormonal activity
Hypo: infertility; failure of sexual maturation
Lutenizing Hormone
Ant Pituitary
Stimulus: releasing hormone
Target: ovaries and testes
Effects: stimulates sperm production, triggers ovulation
Hypo: infertility
TSH Thryoid Stimulating Hormone (Thyrotropic)
Ant Pituitary
Stimulus: releasing hormone
Target: thyroid gland
Effects: stimulates growth and thyroid activity
Hypo: cretinism in children: mental retardation, childlike dwarfism
myxedema in adults: low metabolic rate, obesity, sluggishness
goiters: due to lack of iodine
Hyper: Graves's disease: elevated metabolic rate nervousness, weight loss; exopthalamus
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Ant Pituitary
Stimulus: releasing hormone
Target: adrenal cortex
Effects: regulates activity of adrenal cortex
Hypo: rare
Hyper: Cushing's disease: hyperglycemia, loss of muscle and bone protein, water and salt retention, buffalo hump
Oxytocin
Post Pituitary
Stimulus: impulses from hypothalamic neurons responding to uterine stretching and suckling
Target: uterus; mammary glands
Effects: stimulates uterine contractions; initiates milk ejection from breast; initiates labor
Antidiuretic Hormone
Post Pituitary
Stimulus: stimulated by impulses from hypothalamic neurons responding to changes in blood volume
Target: kidneys
Effects: stimulates kidney tubule cells to reabsorb water; decrease urine output; increase blood volume
Hypo: diabetes insipidus, high urine output, intense thirst
Hyper: syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion--water retention, weight gain; high blood pressure due to vasoconstriction
Thyroid Hormone (Thyroxine)
Thyroid
Stimulus: TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
Target: virtually every cell except brain, spleen, testes, and uterus
Effects: controls rate at which glucose is oxidized or used as body heat and chem energy; maintain blood pressure; regulate tissue growth and development; increases basal metabolic rate and body heat production
Hypo: cretinism: mental retardation, childlike dwarfism, myxedemia: low metabolic rate, obesity, sluggishness
Hyper: Grave's disease: elevated metabolic rate nervousness, weight loss; exopthalamus
Calcitonin
Thyroid
Stimulus: high blood levels of calcium
Target: bone tissue
Effects: causes deposition of Calcium into bone; inhibits osteoclasts, antagonist to PTH (parathyroid), lowers blood calcium levels
Hypo: weakening of bone tissue
Hyper: problems with muscle contraction
Parathyroid Hormone
Parathyroid
Stimulus: decreased Calcium levels in blood
Target: bone tissue, kidneys, intestines
Effects: stimulates osteoclasts to remove calcium; stimulate kidneys and intestines to absorb more Calcium; antagonist to calcitonin
Hypo: uncontrolled muscle spasms, can be fatal (tetanus)
Hyper: massive bone destruction
Mineralcorticoid (ALDOSTERONE)
adrenal cortex
Stimulus: decreased blood volume; increase in potassium or decrease in sodium
Target: kidneys
Effects: regulate water and electrolyte balance; decrease in potassium or increase in sodium
Hypo: Addison's disease: weight loss, severe dehydration, hypotension
Hyper: Aldosteronism
w/Na: hypertension, edema
w/K: neurons nonresponsive, muscle weakness
Glucocorticoid (CORTISONE AND CORTISOL)
adrenal cortex
Stimulus: ACTH adrenocorticotropic
Target: body cells
Effects: hyperglycemia; promote gluconeogenesis; resist LONG TERM STRESSORS; stimulate protein catabolism; mobilize fats for energy metabolism
Hypo: Addison's disease: weight loss, severe dehydration, hypotension
Hyper: Cushing's disease: hyperglycemia, loss of muscle and bone protein, water and salt retention, buffalo hump
Sex Hormones
adrenal cortex
Stimulus: ACTH (adrenocorticotropic)
Target: ovaries, testes
Hyper: androgenital syndrome in females (masculine secondary sex characteristics in females)
Epinephrine/norepinephrine
adrenal MEDULLA
Stimulus: sympathetic nervous system
Target: sympathetic nervous system target organs
Effects: Epi: increase heart rate and metabolic rate
Norep: increase blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction
Hyper: hypertension; prolonged fight or flight response
Insulin
pancreas
Stimulus: elevated blood sugar levels
Target: liver, tissue cells
Effects: lower blood sugar levels; synthesize glucogen, increase uptake of glucose in cells (antagonist is glucagon)
Hypo: diabetes mellitus, cells lack glucose, high urine output, excessive thirst
Hyper: low blood sugar, anxiety, weakness, disorientation, unconsciousness with an overdose of insulin
Glucagon
pancreas
Stimulus: LOW glucose levels in blood
Target: liver cells
Effects: glucogeogesis breakdown of glucogen into glucose; blood sugar levels rise
Hypo: low blood sugar (hypoglycemic
Hyper: symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
Melatonin
pineal
Stimulus: darkness/duration of daylight
Target: brain and body cells
Effects: increased activity at night for sleep, decreased during the day
Thymosin
thymus gland
Stimulus: development
Target: T-lymphocyte cells
Effects: development of mature T cells and immune response; largest in infants and children
Hypo: failure of immune system
Estrogen
ovaries
Stimulus: FSH, LH (follicle..lutenizing)
Target: reprod organs, breasts
Effects: maturation of reprod organs and appearance of secondary sex charasteristics of females at puberty; prepares breasts to produce milk
Progesterone
ovaries
Stimulus: FSH, LH (follicle...lutenizing...)
Target: reprod organs, breasts
Effects: menstrual cycle, preparing breasts to produce milk, maturation of reprod organs and appearance of secondary sex characteristics of females at puberty
Testosterone
Testes
Stimulus: FSH, LH (follicle...lutenizing...)
Target: reprod organs
Effects: sperm productions; maturation of male reproductive organs and appearance