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a substance or compound that provides nourishment (or food) or raw materials needed for life processes


an organic compound that participates in biochemical reactions and that builds various molecules in the body


a natural, usually inorganic solid that has a characteristic chemical composition, an orderly internal structure, and a characteristic set of physical properties


condition resulting from excessive water loss


the breaking down of food into chemical substances that can be used for energy

gastrointestinal tract

the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus, including the stomach and intestines


the watery fluid that is secreted by the salivary glands of the mouth, that softens and moistens food, and that begins digestion


in flatworms, the muscular tube that leads from the mouth to the gastrovascular cavity; in animals with a digestive tract, the passage from the mouth to the larynx and esophagus


a structure that hangs at the entrance of the larynx and prevents food from entering the larynx and the trachea while swallowing


the series of rhythmic muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract

gastric fluid

a liquid secreted by gastric glands in the stomach


a lesion of the surface of the skin or a mucous membrane; sometimes occurs in the digestive system

cardiac sphincter

a circular muscle located between the esophagus and the stomach


the mixture formed in the stomach from digested food particles and gastric fluid

pyloric sphincter

the circular muscle that controls the flow of chyme from the stomach to the small intestine


a sac-shaped organ that stores bile produced by the liver


one of the many tiny projections from the cells in the lining of the small intestine; increases the surface area of the lining for absorption


a section of the large intestine


the process of eliminating metabolic wastes

renal cortex

the outermost portion of the kidney, makes up about a third of the kidney's tissue mass

renal medulla

the inner two-thirds of the kidney

renal pelvis

a funnel-shaped structure in the center of the kidney


the principal nitrogenous product of the metabolism of proteins that forms in the liver from amino acids and from compounds of ammonia and that is found in urine and other body fluids


a colorless gas that has an alkaline reaction in water; forms in nature as an end product of animal metabolism (formula, NH3)


the liquid excreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, and passed through the urethra to the outside of the body


the functional unit of the kidney

Bowman's capsule

a tight ball of capillaries that retains cells and large molecules in the blood and passes wastes dissolved in water


a cluster of capillaries that is enclosed in a Bowman's capsule in a nephron of the kidney, where blood is filtered

renal tubule

the long, tubular portion of a nephron that produces and that takes urine to the renal pelvis of a kidney


the process of separating dissolved substances, such as impurities in the blood by passing them through a porous material; occurs between the glomerulus and the Bowman's capsule in the nephrons of a kidney


the process in the kidneys by which materials return to the blood from the nephrons


the process by which the glands of the body release their substances; a substance produced by a gland

loop of Henle

in the kidney, the long, U-shaped part of a nephron that reabsorbs water and salts from the urine collected by the glomerulus


one of the two narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

urinary bladder

a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine


the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

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